Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Child Acute Stress Measures in Spanish and English
ABSTRACT Clinicians and researchers need tools for accurate early assessment of children's acute stress reactions and acute stress disorder (ASD). There is a particular need for independently validated Spanish-language measures. The current study reports on 2 measures of child acute stress (a self-report checklist and a semistructured interview), describing the development of the Spanish version of each measure and psychometric evaluation of both the Spanish and English versions. Children between the ages of 8 to 17 years who had experienced a recent traumatic event completed study measures in Spanish (n = 225) or in English (n = 254). Results provide support for reliability (internal consistency of the measures in both languages ranged from .83 to .89; cross-language reliability of the checklist was .93) and for convergent validity (with later PTSD symptoms, and with concurrent anxiety symptoms). Comparing checklist and interview results revealed a strong association between severity scores within the Spanish and English samples. Differences between the checklist and interview in evaluating the presence of ASD appear to be linked to different content coverage for dissociation symptoms. Future studies should further assess the impact of differing assessment modes, content coverage, and the use of these measures in children with diverse types of acute trauma exposure in English- and Spanish-speaking children.
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ABSTRACT: A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N = 479) between the ages of 8-17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and 1 month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01) and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, reexperiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), reexperiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's ρ = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery.Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10880-013-9382-z
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ABSTRACT: Given the consistent growth of the Latino population in the United States, there is a critical need for validated Spanish measures to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children. The current study examines the psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS). We examined 259 children (8-17 years) who had experienced a recent traumatic event. Study measures were completed in Spanish (n = 106; boys = 58, girls = 48) or in English (n = 153; boys = 96, girls = 57). In addition to internal consistency, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted by testing four models to examine construct validity: (1) PTS single-factor, (2) DSM-IV three-factor, (3) Numbing four-factor, and (4) Dysphoria four-factor models. Findings demonstrated good internal consistency for both the English and Spanish versions of the CPSS. The English version revealed superior fit to the data for several models of PTS symptoms structure compared to the Spanish version. The current study demonstrated construct validity for the English CPSS, but not for the Spanish CPSS. Future studies will examine additional alternative models as well as convergent and discriminant validity of the Spanish CPSS.Child Psychiatry and Human Development 08/2014; 46(3). DOI:10.1007/s10578-014-0482-2