Update on Portal Vein Embolization: Evidence-based Outcomes, Controversies, and Novel Strategies

Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, 525 East 68th Street, P-518, New York, NY 10065.
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR (Impact Factor: 2.41). 02/2013; 24(2):241-254. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvir.2012.10.017
Source: PubMed


Portal vein embolization (PVE) is an established therapy used to redirect portal blood flow away from the tumor-bearing liver to the anticipated future liver remnant (FLR) and usually results in FLR hypertrophy. PVE is indicated when the FLR is considered too small before surgery to support essential function after surgery. When appropriately applied, PVE reduces postoperative morbidity and increases the number of patients eligible for curative hepatic resection. PVE also has been combined with other therapies to improve patient outcomes. This article assesses more recent outcomes data regarding PVE, reviews the existing controversies, and reports on novel strategies currently being investigated.

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Available from: David C Madoff, Jan 09, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To retrospectively analyze efficacy as measured by volume gain of future remnant liver (FRL) after right portal vein embolization (PVE) using particles only versus particles and additional central plug and/or coil (CP/C) embolization. All patients who underwent PVE between July 2011 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Right PVE was performed either with particle-only (PO) embolization or additional CP/C embolization. All enrolled patients underwent computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging before PVE and surgery. The images were used for volumetry of the FRL. Of 75 patients, 40 had PO and 35 CP/C embolization. Age, sex, and tumor entities did not differ significantly between the two groups. Tumor entities included cholangiocarcinoma (n = 52), metastasis from colorectal cancer (n = 14), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 2), and others (n = 7). Time from PVE to preoperative imaging was similar in both groups. FRL volume before PVE was 329 ± 121 ml in the PO group and 333 ± 135 ml in the CP/C group, and 419 ± 135 ml and 492 ± 165 ml before operation. The average percentage volume gain was significantly higher in the CP/C group than in the PO group, with 53.3 ± 34.5 % versus 30.9 ± 28.8 % (p = 0.002). Right PVE with additional CP/C embolization leads to a significantly higher gain in FRL volume than embolization with particles alone.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 12/2013; 37(5). DOI:10.1007/s00270-013-0810-0 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of portal vein embolization (PVE) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) foam. A single-center retrospective review of 35 patients (27 men and 8 women; mean age, 61 y) who underwent PVE with STS foam was performed. The technical success rate, rate of PVE at producing adequate future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy, and rate of disease progression precluding resection after PVE were analyzed. Complications of PVE and liver resection after PVE were recorded. PVE was performed on 35 patients before right hepatic resection for both primary and secondary hepatic malignancies (22 hepatocellular carcinoma, 10 metastasis, 2 cholangiocarcinoma, 1 invasive gallbladder carcinoma). Technical success was achieved in 97.1% (34 of 35) of patients. Mean FLR of the total estimated liver volume increased from 24.5% (SD, 7.7%) to 36.5% (SD, 14.5%), a mean percentage increase of 48.8% (SD, 34.3%). PVE produced adequate FLR hypertrophy in 31 of 35 patients (88.6%). Proposed right hepatectomy was subsequently performed in 27 patients (77.1%). One patient remains scheduled for surgery, two had peritoneal spread at surgery and resection was aborted, two had disease progression on imaging after PVE, and three had inadequate FLR hypertrophy with no surgery. One major complication was observed related to PVE that involved nontarget embolization to segment III, which was managed conservatively. Preoperative PVE with STS foam is a safe and effective method to induce hypertrophy of the FLR.
    Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 03/2014; 25(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jvir.2014.01.034 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To retrospectively analyze the degree of artefacts in CT and MRI scans caused by coils and vascular plugs used for portal vein embolization (PVE). Materials and Methods All patients who underwent PVE between July 2011 and December 2012 and received either plug or coil embolization additional to particle embolization were retrospectively analyzed. Artefacts causes by embolization materials were measured in CT and MRI scans following PVE. Results The sum of the artefact diameters caused from coils was significantly higher in CT (188.3 ± 26.1 mm) than in MRI T1 (50.5 ± 6.5 mm) or T2 imaging (39.5 ± 9.7 mm) (P < 0.05). In MRI, the diameter in T1 and T2 sequences did not differ significantly (P = 0.977). The sum of the artefact diameters from vascular plugs in MRI T1 sequences (62.5 ± 8.7 mm) were significantly higher than in CT (46.6 ± 4.8 mm; P < 0.05) and MRI T2 sequences (52.8 ± 3.8 mm; P < 0.05). Conclusion PVE with particles and vascular plug causes significantly fewer artefacts than PVE with particles and coils on CT scans following embolization, which can be important in the event of vascular complications or in follow-up scans, should the patient become unresectable.
    European journal of radiology 04/2014; 83(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2014.01.004 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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