Objective and Subjective Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities
ABSTRACT Sleep disturbances are common complaints in individuals with psychiatric disabilities, frequently occurring at onset and with exacerbation of illness. A small descriptive study of community-based overweight individuals (N = 9) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, wore an ActiGraph and kept a sleep diary for 7 to 14 days. All but two participants had poor sleep efficiency based on actigraphy scores, an objective measure of sleep. These scores were in agreement with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a self-report measure, in all but one participant. The findings indicate the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index is a comprehensive measure to use in assessing sleep in individuals who have psychiatric disabilities.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were -0.62 (range -0.43 to -0.84) for good sleepers and -0.45 (range 0.003 to -0.64) for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=-2.11, P<0.05). Median correlation coefficients of activity count and low frequency/high frequency were 0.54 (range 0.29-0.73) for good sleepers and 0.41 (range 0.11-0.63) for poor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, P<0.05) and sleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, P<0.05), and a negative correlation between sleep time as measured by PSQI and the correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency (r=-0.460, P<0.01). These results support the finding that sleep-wake rhythms can be monitored efficiently with actigraphy, providing accurate data that can support the diagnosis of sleeping disorders. Furthermore, actigraphy data were associated with heart rate variability and PSQI findings, but only in subjects who were poor sleepers. Actigraphy is an accurate, efficient, rapid, and inexpensive test for determining objective and subjective sleeping problems, and can also be used in clinical tests for sleep assessment.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:89-96. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S56827 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Insomnia is frequent in schizophrenia and may contribute to cognitive impairment as well as overuse of weight inducing sedative antipsychotics. We investigated the effects of eszopiclone on sleep and cognition for patients with schizophrenia-related insomnia in a double-blind placebo controlled study, followed by a two-week, single-blind placebo phase. Methods: Thirty-nine clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and insomnia were randomized to either 3mg eszopiclone (n=20) or placebo (n=19). Primary outcome measure was change in Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) over 8 weeks. Secondary outcome measure was change in MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MATRICS). Sleep diaries, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life were also monitored. Results: ISI significantly improved more in eszopiclone (mean=-10.7, 95% CI=-13.2; -8.2) than in placebo (mean=-6.9, 95% CI=-9.5; -4.3) with a between-group difference of -3.8 (95% CI=-7.5; -0.2). MATRICS score change did not differ between groups. On further analysis there was a significant improvement in the working memory test, letter-number span component of MATRICS (mean=9.8±9.2, z=-2.00, p=0.045) only for subjects with schizophrenia on eszopiclone. There were improvements in sleep diary items in both groups with no between-group differences. Psychiatric symptoms remained stable. Discontinuation rates were similar. Sleep remained improved during single-blind placebo phase after eszopiclone was stopped, but the working memory improvement in patients with schizophrenia was not durable. Conclusions: Eszopiclone stands as a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of insomnia in patients with schizophrenia. Its effects on cognition require further study.Schizophrenia Research 10/2014; 160(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.10.002 · 3.92 Impact Factor