Calcium-Mediated Parathyroid Hormone Suppression to Assess Progression of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism During Treatment Among Incident Dialysis Patients

Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia (M.R.), Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba, Córdoba 14004, Spain
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.31). 01/2013; 98(2). DOI: 10.1210/jc.2012-3246
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Context:Parathyroid gland function is affected adversely by tissue hyperplasia and gland enlargement in hyperparathyroidism.Objective:We examined the effects of 2 treatment strategies on the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism using measurements of the nonsuppressible component of calcium-regulated PTH secretion as an index of parathyroid mass.Design, Subjects, and Intervention:In this randomized, open-label study, subjects managed with hemodialysis for >3 but <12 months before entering the trial (mean, 7.2 months) who had baseline plasma PTH levels >300 pg/mL received cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols (Cin-D, n = 153) or larger, varying doses of calcitriol, or other vitamin D analogs (Flex-D, n = 151). Study drug doses were adjusted periodically based on PTH and serum total calcium determinations.Main Outcome Measures:The exploratory endpoint was calcium-regulated PTH release, assessed using a standardized PTH suppression test before and after 52 weeks of treatment and 4 weeks after withdrawing treatment. PTH and serum total calcium were measured before hemodialysis using high-calcium (3.5 mEq/L or 1.75 mmol/L) dialysate and after 150 and 180 minutes.Results:Mean (95% confidence interval) nonsuppressible calcium-regulated PTH release at baseline did not differ between Cin-D, 33.4% (25.9%, 40.9%), and Flex-D, 28.1% (23.2%, 32.9%). Corresponding values after 52 weeks of treatment were 34.3% (29.7%, 38.9%) and 42.0% (32.7%, 51.3%), not significant, and did not change measurably in either group when reevaluated 4 weeks after treatments were withdrawn.Conclusion:Disease progression over 12 months was not documented using a PTH suppression test in this population. Calcium-mediated PTH suppression was maintained fully, however, in Cin-D despite reductions in serum total calcium concentration, whereas values did not increase in Flex-D despite substantial increases in serum calcium.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by calcium was studied in normal and abnormal parathyroid tissue from five patients with a parathyroid adenoma. Dispersed cells were prepared from the adenoma and from a portion of a normal parathyroid gland and were incubated for two hours with varying concentrations of calcium. PTH release as a function of the concentration of calcium was determined by radioimmunoassay (C-terminal). Cells from the normal glands showed a lower set-point for calcium (the concentration of calcium causing half of the maximal inhibition of PTH release) than those from the adenomas in four of five cases. Moreover, both set-point and maximal PTH release at low concentrations of calcium were significantly lower in normal glands from patients with an adenoma than in normal glands from patients with normal calcium homeostasis (0.77 +/- 0.04 [SEM] versus 0.99 +/- 0.03 mM calcium and 3.4 +/- 0.43 versus 10.1 +/- 0.78 ng/10(5) cells/hr, respectively). These observations may explain, in part, the transient hypocalcemia frequently seen in patients after removal of a parathyroid adenoma. In addition, they suggest that the set-point for calcium and maximal PTH release in normal parathyroid tissue may be altered by prior exposure to chronic hypercalcemia or other physiologic variables. Finally, the "normal" set-point that we have noted previously in parathyroid tissue from some patients with primary parathyroid hyperplasia may be inappropriately high for the hypercalcemia seen in those cases.
    The American Journal of Medicine 11/1981; 71(4):565-70. DOI:10.1016/0002-9343(81)90207-2 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In uremic patients, severe parathyroid hyperplasia is associated with reduced parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) expression. Thus, in these patients, a high serum Ca concentration may be required to inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. This study compares the magnitude of reduction in CaR expression and the degree of the abnormality in Ca-regulated PTH release in vitro. A total of 50 glands from 23 hemodialysis patients with refractory hyperparathyroidism were studied. Tissue slices were incubated in vitro to evaluate (1) the PTH secretory output in a normal Ca concentration (1.25 mM) and (2) the PTH secretory response to high (1.5 mM) and low (0.6 mM) Ca concentration. Tissue aliquots were processed for determination of CaRmRNA expression. The results showed that, corrected for DNA, parathyroid tissue with lowest CaR expression secreted more PTH than that with relatively high CaR expression (146 +/- 23 versus 60 +/- 2 pg/microg DNA; P < 0.01). Furthermore, glands with low CaR expression demonstrated a blunted PTH secretory response to both the inhibitory effect of high Ca and the stimulatory effect of low Ca. The study also showed that the larger the gland, the lower the CaRmRNA expression. Thus, large parathyroid glands produce a large amount of PTH not only as a result of the increased gland size but also because the parathyroid tissue secretory output is increased. These abnormalities in PTH regulation are related to low CaR expression.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2005; 16(7):2190-7. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2004080657 · 9.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) represents the molecular mechanism by which parathyroid cells detect changes in blood ionized calcium concentration and modulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion to maintain serum calcium levels within a narrow physiological range. Much has been learned in recent years about the diversity of signal transduction through the CaSR and the various factors that affect receptor expression. Beyond its classic role as a determinant of calcium-regulated PTH secretion, signaling through the CaSR also influences both gene transcription and cell proliferation in parathyroid cells. The CaSR thus serves a broad physiological role by integrating several distinct aspects of parathyroid gland function. The current review summarizes recent developments that enhance our understanding of the CaSR and its fundamental importance in parathyroid gland physiology.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 07/2004; 286(6):F1005-11. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00013.2004 · 3.30 Impact Factor


Available from
Mar 12, 2015