Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in which aging is not only a major risk factor but a major determinant of onset, course, and pathogenesis. The synthesis of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides by neurons and their excretion into the extracellular space (ECS) is a core feature of AD that begins more than two decades before the onset of clinical symptoms. The ECS resembles a syncytium with the appearance in electron micrographs of continuous channels and lakes separating the outer membranes of the neurons, neuroglia, and vascular elements embedded in it. It consists primarily of a proteoglycan matrix through which circulates an interstitial fluid, derived in part from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The process by which Aβ accumulates in the ECS includes decreased production of CSF, matrix proteoglycans, and ECS volume, all of which become more severe with advancing age and lead to an age-related increase in the Aβ pool. Although the relationship between Aβ and the appearance of cognitive symptoms is uncertain, available data support a strong relationship between the toxicity of Aβ for neurons and the total Aβ burden, including the soluble and fibrillar Aβ, the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, and Aβ-proteoglycan reactivity. Proteoglycans have been shown to foster the formation of neurotoxic fibrillar Aβ42 and neuritic plaques that enhance neuronal and synaptic damage and eventual loss culminating in the onset and progression of dementia. As this process depends upon age-related events, it suggests that the successful control of AD lies in finding effective means of prevention.
"These pathologies share chronic features, that is, abnormal protein aggregation, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress . Several conditions have been associated with redox imbalance, and aging is one of the most important risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases . Many evidences suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, because of its high content of unsaturated phospholipids, its high metabolic rate, and low content of some antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase [4, 5], the hippocampus, substantia nigra, and striatum being the most sensitive structures . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exposure to low doses of ozone induces an oxidative stress state, which is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Forkhead box O (FoxO) family of transcription factors are activated by oxidative signals and regulate cell proliferation and resistance to oxidative stress. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic exposure to ozone on the activation of FoxO 1a and FoxO 3a in the hippocampus of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups and exposed to 0.25 ppm of ozone for 0, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. After treatment, the groups were processed for western blotting and immunohistochemistry against FoxO 3a, Mn SOD, cyclin D2, FoxO 1a, and active caspase 3. We found that exposure to ozone increased the activation of FoxO 3a at 30 and 60 days and expression of Mn SOD at all treatment times. Additionally, increases in cyclin D2 from 7 to 90 days; FoxO 1a at 15, 30, and 60 days; and activate caspase 3 from 30 to 60 days of exposure were noted. The results indicate that ozone alters regulatory pathways related to both the antioxidant system and the cell cycle, inducing neuronal reentry into the cell cycle and apoptotic death.
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 05/2014; 2014(1):805764. DOI:10.1155/2014/805764 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide Aβ19-20 tends to self-assemble into well-ordered tubular structures under physiological conditions, while in the presence of equimolar Cu(II), they assembled into homogeneous microvesicles; a chelator can competitively bind to Cu(II) from the Cu(II)-Aβ19-20 complex, resulting in reforming of the peptide tubular structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An essential component of the brain extracellular space is the extracellular matrix contributing to the spatial assembly of cells by binding cell-surface adhesion molecules, supporting cell migration, differentiation, and tissue development. The most interesting and complex functions of the central nervous system are the abilities to encode new information (learning) and to store this information (memory). The creation of perineuronal nets, consisting mostly of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, stabilizes the synapses and memory trails and forms protective shields against neurodegenerative processes but terminates plasticity and the potential for recovery of the tissue. Age-related changes in the extracellular matrix composition and the extracellular space volume and permissivity are major determinants of the onset and development of the most common neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease. In this regard, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, involved in amyloid clearance from the brain, play an important role in Alzheimer's disease and other types of neurodegeneration. Additional key players in the modification of the extracellular matrix are matrix metalloproteinases. Recent studies show that the extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteinases are important regulators of plasticity, learning, and memory and might be involved in different neurological disorders like epilepsy, schizophrenia, addiction, and dementia. The identification of molecules and mechanisms that modulate these processes is crucial for the understanding of brain function and dysfunction and for the design of new therapeutic approaches targeting the molecular mechanism underlying these neurological disorders.
Roberta Lizio, Claudio Del Percio, Nicola Marzano, Andrea Soricelli, Görsev G Yener, Erol Başar, Ciro Mundi, Salvatore De Rosa, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Raffaele Ferri, [...], Susanna Cordone, Susanna Lopez, Filippo Carducci, Giulia Santi, Loreto Gesualdo, Paolo M Rossini, Enrica Cavedo, Margherita Mauri, Giovanni B Frisoni, Claudio Babiloni
Tiina Laiterä, Mitja I Kurki, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Henrik Zetterberg, Seppo Helisalmi, Tuomas Rauramaa, Irina Alafuzoff, Anne M Remes, Hilkka Soininen, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Mikko Hiltunen, Ville Leinonen
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