Liking compared with wanting for high- and low-calorie foods in anorexia nervosa: aberrant food reward even after weight restoration
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Recent frameworks for understanding food rewards recognize the role of separable affective and motivational processes (liking and wanting) in driving human eating behavior. Separate assessments of liking and wanting may aid in understanding the complex eating-related behaviors seen in anorexia nervosa (AN). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine separately liking and wanting for foods of different energy densities in women at different stages of AN and in healthy volunteers at both an implicit and an explicit level. DESIGN: Explicit liking and wanting responses to high- and low-calorie foods were derived from analog ratings, whereas an implicit "wanting" measure was identified by using reaction time in a forced-choice procedure. Explicit and implicit processes were compared across 3 groups of AN participants (current AN, weight-restored AN, and recovered AN) and healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Currently underweight AN participants explicitly wanted high-calorie foods less than did the other groups. Both current and weight-restored AN groups demonstrated significantly less implicit "wanting" for high-calorie foods and more implicit "wanting" for low-calorie foods-an inverted pattern to never-ill participants. CONCLUSIONS: The aberrant responses to food that characterize AN may be driven more by altered motivational salience ("wanting") than by explicit liking responses. This pattern of aberrant food reward appears to be independent of weight status. Examining the processes that motivate approach or avoidance of low- and high-calorie foods in AN may aid the development of targeted strategies to augment existing interventions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. In Romania medical-legal studies on the pattern of drug consumption have not yet been conducted nationwide; the purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine whether such a pattern could be identified. Methods. A total number of 577 analyses were performed during a three-year period on people suspected of non-lethal substance abuse, in more than two-thirds of the counties in Romania. Preliminary tests were conducted using immunoassay tests (blood or urine) and confirmatory tests were carried out using either GC-MS or HPLC. Results. 240 cases (41.6%) were negative while 327 cases (58.4%) tested positive for illegal drugs, central nervous system medication or both. Men represented 89.5% of all cases, while women accounted for only 10.5%. The pattern of substance abuse varied significantly, depending on the geographical area. In most cases, the identified drugs of abuse were cannabinoids and opiates, with a significantly different distribution of cases, depending on the geographical area. The highest number of positive cases was identified in the month of October, whereas the smallest numbers were identified in July and December. The annual trend of consumption revealed a significant decrease in the analysed substances in 2011. Conclusions. Our study has determined the presence of a specific pattern of consumption in different geographical areas - a result that suggests the need for more targeted prevention programmes, addressing local particularities in consumption behaviours. A significant decrease in the identification of drugs of abuse in the third year of our study, combined with data attesting the significant increase in the consumption of legal highs suggests that the forensic toxicology laboratories need to be equipped with apparatus able to detect these newer substances of abuse more efficiently.Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 01/2014; 16(3):7-13. · 0.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The compulsive nature of weight loss behaviors central to anorexia nervosa (AN), such as relentless self-starvation and over-exercise, has led to the suggestion of parallels between AN and other compulsive disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addictions. There is a huge unmet need for effective treatments in AN, which has high rates of morbidity and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, yet a grave paucity of effective treatments. Viewing compulsivity as a transdiagnostic concept, seen in various manifestations across disorders, may help delineate the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of AN, and aid treatment development. We explore models of compulsivity that suggest dysfunction in cortico-striatal circuitry underpins compulsive behavior, and consider evidence of aberrancies in this circuitry across disorders. Excessive habit formation is considered as a mechanism by which initially rewarding weight loss behavior in AN may become compulsive over time, and the complex balance between positive and negative reinforcement in this process is considered. The physiological effects of starvation in promoting compulsivity, positive reinforcement, and habit formation are also discussed. Further research in AN may benefit from a focus on processes potentially underlying the development of compulsivity, such as aberrant reward processing and habit formation. We discuss the implications of a transdiagnostic perspective on compulsivity, and how it may contribute to the development of novel treatments for AN.Frontiers in Psychology 07/2014; 5:778. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00778 · 2.80 Impact Factor