Liking compared with wanting for high- and low-calorie foods in anorexia nervosa: aberrant food reward even after weight restoration
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Recent frameworks for understanding food rewards recognize the role of separable affective and motivational processes (liking and wanting) in driving human eating behavior. Separate assessments of liking and wanting may aid in understanding the complex eating-related behaviors seen in anorexia nervosa (AN). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine separately liking and wanting for foods of different energy densities in women at different stages of AN and in healthy volunteers at both an implicit and an explicit level. DESIGN: Explicit liking and wanting responses to high- and low-calorie foods were derived from analog ratings, whereas an implicit "wanting" measure was identified by using reaction time in a forced-choice procedure. Explicit and implicit processes were compared across 3 groups of AN participants (current AN, weight-restored AN, and recovered AN) and healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Currently underweight AN participants explicitly wanted high-calorie foods less than did the other groups. Both current and weight-restored AN groups demonstrated significantly less implicit "wanting" for high-calorie foods and more implicit "wanting" for low-calorie foods-an inverted pattern to never-ill participants. CONCLUSIONS: The aberrant responses to food that characterize AN may be driven more by altered motivational salience ("wanting") than by explicit liking responses. This pattern of aberrant food reward appears to be independent of weight status. Examining the processes that motivate approach or avoidance of low- and high-calorie foods in AN may aid the development of targeted strategies to augment existing interventions.
SourceAvailable from: Peter J de Jong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of automatic approach/avoidance tendencies for food in Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We used a longitudinal approach and tested whether a reduction in eating disorder symptoms is associated with enhanced approach tendencies toward food and whether approach tendencies toward food at baseline are predictive for treatment outcome after one year follow up. Method The Affective Simon Task-manikin version (AST-manikin) was administered to measure automatic approach/avoidance tendencies towards high-caloric and low-caloric food in young AN patients. Percentage underweight and eating disorder symptoms as indexed by the EDE-Q were determined both during baseline and at one year follow up. Results At baseline anorexia patients showed an approach tendency for low caloric food, but not for high caloric food, whereas at 1 year follow up, they have an approach tendency for both high and low caloric food. Change in approach bias was neither associated with change in underweight nor with change in eating disorder symptoms. Strength of approach/avoidance tendencies was not predictive for percentage underweight. Discussion Although approach tendencies increased after one year, approach tendencies were neither associated with concurrent change in eating disorder symptoms nor predictive for treatment success as indexed by EDE-Q. This implicates that, so far, there is no reason to add a method designed to directly target approach/avoidance tendencies to the the conventional approach to treat patients with a method designed to influence the more deliberate processes in AN. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Appetite 03/2015; 91. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.03.018 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. In Romania medical-legal studies on the pattern of drug consumption have not yet been conducted nationwide; the purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine whether such a pattern could be identified. Methods. A total number of 577 analyses were performed during a three-year period on people suspected of non-lethal substance abuse, in more than two-thirds of the counties in Romania. Preliminary tests were conducted using immunoassay tests (blood or urine) and confirmatory tests were carried out using either GC-MS or HPLC. Results. 240 cases (41.6%) were negative while 327 cases (58.4%) tested positive for illegal drugs, central nervous system medication or both. Men represented 89.5% of all cases, while women accounted for only 10.5%. The pattern of substance abuse varied significantly, depending on the geographical area. In most cases, the identified drugs of abuse were cannabinoids and opiates, with a significantly different distribution of cases, depending on the geographical area. The highest number of positive cases was identified in the month of October, whereas the smallest numbers were identified in July and December. The annual trend of consumption revealed a significant decrease in the analysed substances in 2011. Conclusions. Our study has determined the presence of a specific pattern of consumption in different geographical areas - a result that suggests the need for more targeted prevention programmes, addressing local particularities in consumption behaviours. A significant decrease in the identification of drugs of abuse in the third year of our study, combined with data attesting the significant increase in the consumption of legal highs suggests that the forensic toxicology laboratories need to be equipped with apparatus able to detect these newer substances of abuse more efficiently.Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 01/2014; 16(3):7-13. · 0.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The characteristic relentless self-starvation behaviour seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of transdiagnostic parallels with addictive behaviour. There is a paucity of standardised self-report measures of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders (EDs). Measures that index the concept of compulsive self-starvation in AN are needed to explore the suggested parallels with addictions. With this aim a novel measure of self-starvation was developed (the Self-Starvation Scale, SS). 126 healthy participants, and 78 individuals with experience of AN, completed the new measure along with existing measures of eating disorder symptoms, anxiety and depression. Initial validation in the healthy sample indicated good reliability and construct validity, and incremental validity in predicting eating disorder symptoms. The psychometric properties of the SS scale were replicated in the AN sample. The ability of this scale to predict ED symptoms was particularly strong in individuals currently suffering from AN. These results suggest the SS may be a useful index of compulsive food restriction in AN. The concept of 'starvation dependence' in those with eating disorders, as a parallel with addiction, may be of clinical and theoretical importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Eating Behaviors 12/2014; 17C:10-13. DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.12.004 · 1.58 Impact Factor