The Psychometric Properties of the Vanderbilt Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale in a Community Population
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt AD/HD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale (VADTRS). METHODS:: Information was collected from teachers and parents in 5 school districts (urban, suburban, and rural). All teachers in participating schools were asked to complete the VADTRS on all their students. Construct validity was evaluated through an exploratory factor analysis investigation of the 35 items that made up the 4 scales of inattention, hyperactivity, conduct/oppositional problems, and anxiety/depression problems. Convergent validity was assessed among a subsample of participants whose teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Finally, predictive validity was examined for another subsample of high- and low-risk children whose parents completed a structured psychiatric interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. RESULTS:: For construct validity, a 4-factor model (inattention, hyperactivity, conduct/oppositional, and anxiety/depression problems) fits the data well. The estimates of the KR20 coefficient for a binary item version of the scale ranged from .85 to .94. Convergent validity with the SDQ was high (Pearson's correlations > .72) for these 4 factors. For predictive validity, the VADTRS produced a sensitivity of .69, specificity of .84, positive predictive value of .32, and negative predictive value of .96 when predicting future case definitions among children whose parents completed a diagnostic interview. CONCLUSION:: The confirmation of the construct and convergent validity and acceptable scale reliabilities found in this study further supports the utility of the VADTRS as a diagnostic rating scale for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The low predictive validity further demonstrates the need for multiple observers in establishing the diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Alterations in dopamine (DA) signaling underlie the most widely held theories of molecular and circuit level perturbations that lead to risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The DA transporter (DAT), a presynaptic reuptake protein whose activity provides critical support for DA signaling by limiting DA action at pre- and postsynaptic receptors, has been consistently associated with ADHD through pharmacological, behavioral, brain imaging and genetic studies. Currently, the animal models of ADHD exhibit significant limitations, stemming in large part from their lack of construct validity. To remedy this situation, we have pursued an effort to create a mouse model derived from functional nonsynonymous variation in the DAT gene (SLC6A3) of ADHD probands. We trace our path from the identification of these variants to in vitro biochemical and physiological studies to the production of the DAT Val559 mouse model. We discuss our initial findings with these animals and their promise in the context of existing rodent models of ADHD.Neurochemistry International 12/2013; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2013.11.009 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although research demonstrates sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms to be statistically distinct from other child psychopathologies (including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], anxiety, depression, and oppositionality) and associated with social impairment, all studies conducted to date have been cross-sectional. Thus, while extant research demonstrates an association between SCT and social functioning, it is entirely unknown whether or not SCT longitudinally predicts increases in social impairment. This study provides an initial examination of the prospective association between SCT symptoms and children's peer functioning. Teachers of 176 children in 1st-6th grades (ages 6-13; 47% boys) provided ratings of children's psychopathology (i.e.,SCT, ADHD, anxious/depressive, and oppositional/conduct problems) and peer functioning (i.e., popularity, negative social preference, peer impairment), and peer functioning was assessed again six months later. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that, above and beyond child demographics, other psychopathologies, and baseline peer functioning, SCT symptoms were significantly associated with poorer peer functioning at the six-month follow-up. In addition, 75% of children with high levels of SCT were rated as functionally impaired in the peer domain, in contrast to only 8% of children with low SCT. Further research is needed with larger samples to examine SCT over a longer developmental period and with other domains of adjustment.Psychiatry Research 01/2014; 217(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.02.007 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral disorder in school-age population and is a major driver of mental health consultation. Diagnosis is hindered by the difficulty of objectively assessing subjective aspects such as inattention or impulsivity.01/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.5867/medwave.2014.01.5887