Article

Fine-Mapping of 5q12.1-13.3 Unveils New Genetic Contributors to Caries

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Nihon University of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Japan.
Caries Research (Impact Factor: 2.5). 01/2013; 47(4):273-283. DOI: 10.1159/000346278
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Caries is a multifactorial disease and little is still known about the host genetic factors influencing susceptibility. Our previous genome-wide linkage scan has identified the interval 5q12.1-5q13.3 as linked to low caries susceptibility in Filipino families. Here we fine-mapped this region in order to identify genetic contributors to caries susceptibility. Four hundred and seventy-seven subjects from 72 pedigrees with similar cultural and behavioral habits and limited access to dental care living in the Philippines were studied. DMFT scores and genotype data of 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated in the Filipino families with the Family-Based Association Test. For replication purposes, a total 1,467 independent subjects from five different populations were analyzed in a case-control format. In the Filipino cohort, statistically significant and borderline associations were found between low caries experience and four genes spanning 13 million base pairs (PART1, ZSWIM6, CCNB1, and BTF3). We were able to replicate these results in some of the populations studied. We detected PART1 and BTF3 expression in whole saliva, and the expression of BTF3 was associated with caries experience. Our results suggest BTF3 may have a functional role in protecting against caries.

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    • "Recently, our group showed that the 5q13.3 locus may be related to caries susceptibility through genes related to immune response (Shimizu et al. 2013). The 14q11.2 locus had significant results under a recessive model (Vieira et al. 2008a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Caries is the most common chronic, multifactorial disease in the world today; and little is still known about the genetic factors influencing susceptibility. Our previous genome-wide linkage scan has identified five loci related to caries susceptibility: 5q13.3, 13q31.1, 14q11.2, 14q 24.3, and Xq27. In the present study, we fine mapped the 14q11.2 locus to identify genetic contributors to caries susceptibility. Four hundred seventy-seven subjects from 72 pedigrees with similar cultural and behavioral habits and limited access to dental care living in the Philippines were studied. An additional 387 DNA samples from unrelated individuals were used to determine allele frequencies. For replication purposes, a total of 1,446 independent subjects from four different populations were analyzed based on their caries experience (low versus high). Forty-eight markers in 14q11.2 were genotyped using TaqMan chemistry. Transmission disequilibrium test was used to detect over transmission of alleles in the Filipino families, and Chi-square, Fisher's exact and logistic regression were used to test for association between low caries experience and variant alleles in the replication data sets. We finally assessed the mRNA expression of TRAV4 in the saliva of 143 study subjects. In the Filipino families, statistically significant associations were found between low caries experience and markers in TRAV4. We were able to replicate these results in the populations studied that were characteristically from underserved areas. Direct sequencing of 22 subjects carrying the associated alleles detects one missense mutation (Y30R) that is predicted to be probably damaging. Finally, we observed higher expression in children and teenagers with low caries experience, correlating with specific alleles in TRAV4. Our results suggest that TRAV4 may have a role in protecting against caries.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Caries is a common disease in humans and has a multifactorial etiology. It has been suggested that children born with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) have a higher susceptibility to caries, but data from several independent cohorts does not support this assumption. Previous work from our group suggested DEFB 1 is associated with higher caries experience. Since it is suspected that children born with CL/P have the same risk factors predisposing them to caries as other children of the same ages, the aim was to test if DEFB 1 was associated with caries experience in children born with CL/P. Materials and methods. Sixty-nine children born with CL/P (aged 2-12 years) were included. Twenty-seven males and seven females had cleft lip and palate (CLP), six males and seven females had cleft lip (CL) and 13 males and nine females had cleft palate (CP). Caries was evaluated with the DMFT/dmft index by a calibrated evaluator. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in DEFB 1 were selected (rs11362 and rs1800972) based on being associated with higher caries experience in previous work. Genotyping were carried out by real-time PCR using the Taqman assay method. The statistical analysis was performed between 'low-to-moderate caries experience group' and the 'high caries experience group'. Odds ratio calculations between caries experience and variant alleles and chi-square of Fisher exact tests at a level of significance of 0.05 were used. Results. There was no significant difference for caries experience between cleft types (p = 0.551). An association was found for the marker rs11362 and genotype distribution (p = 0.047). When analyzed in a recessive model, the genotype GG in this polymorphism increased the risk for caries susceptibility by more than 3-times (p = 0.031; OR = 3.16; 95% CI = 0.97-10.62). Conclusion. The genetic variant rs11362 in DEFB 1 influences caries susceptibility in CL/P children. The results support the hypothesis that expression of DEFB 1 in saliva may serve as a biomarker for future caries risk.
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