Development of Inhibitors of the PAS-B Domain of the HIF-2α Transcription Factor
ABSTRACT Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors induced in a variety of pathophysiological settings, including cancer. We describe the first detailed structure-activity-relationship study of small molecules designed to inhibit HIF-2α-ARNT heterodimerization by binding an internal cavity of the HIF-2α PAS-B domain. Through a series of biophysical characterizations of inhibitor/protein interactions (NMR and X-ray crystallography), we have established the structural requirements for artificial inhibitors of the HIF-2α-ARNT PAS-B interaction. These results may serve as a foundation for discovering therapeutic agents that function by a novel mode of action.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors induced in many cancers where they frequently promote the expression of protumorigenic pathways. Though transcription factors are typically considered 'undruggable', the PAS-B domain of the HIF-2α subunit contains a large cavity within its hydrophobic core that offers a unique foothold for small-molecule regulation. Here we identify artificial ligands that bind within this pocket and characterize the resulting structural and functional changes caused by binding. Notably, these ligands antagonize HIF-2 heterodimerization and DNA-binding activity in vitro and in cultured cells, reducing HIF-2 target gene expression. Despite the high sequence identity between HIF-2α and HIF-1α, these ligands are highly selective and do not affect HIF-1 function. These chemical tools establish the molecular basis for selective regulation of HIF-2, providing potential therapeutic opportunities to intervene in HIF-2-driven tumors, such as renal cell carcinomas.Nature Chemical Biology 02/2013; 9(4). DOI:10.1038/nchembio.1185 · 13.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many solid tumors, including pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL), are characterized by a (pseudo)hypoxic signature. (Pseudo)hypoxia has been shown to promote both tumor progression and resistance to therapy. The major mediators of the transcriptional hypoxic response are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). High levels of HIFs lead to transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes, which are involved in tumorigenesis. PHEOs and PGLs are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from sympathetic- or parasympathetic-derived chromaffin tissue. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the metabolic disturbances present in PHEO and PGL, especially because of the identification of some disease-susceptibility genes. To date, fifteen PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes have been identified. Based on the main transcription signatures of the mutated genes, PHEOs and PGLs have been divided into two clusters, pseudohypoxic cluster 1 and cluster 2, rich in kinase receptor signaling and protein translation pathways. Although these two clusters seem to show distinct signaling pathways, recent data suggest that both clusters are interconnected by HIF signaling as the important driver in their tumorigenesis, and mutations in most PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes seem to affect HIF-α regulation and its downstream signaling pathways. HIF signaling appears to play an important role in the development and growth of PHEOs and PGLs, which could suggest new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these tumors.Journal of the National Cancer Institute 08/2013; 105(17). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djt201 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) account for approximately 3% of all paragangliomas (PGLs). Most often, HNPGLs are benign, nonsecreting, and slowly progressing. The initial physical examination and biochemical diagnosis usually adds very little to the proper diagnosis of these tumors, and, therefore, radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians play a pivotal role in providing the initial diagnosis, the locoregional staging, and the plan for detecting potential multicentric or metastatic lesions. Based on several current studies, the most accurate use of HNPGL-specific initial and subsequent imaging modalities must be guided by the knowledge of genetics and the specifically measured biochemical profile of these tumors for the proper management of these patients. Thus, this short review article presents the application of the most up-to-date anatomical and functional imaging approaches to HNPGLs tightly linked to the clinical management of these patients. Based on the most recent studies, 18F-FDOPA PET/CT has been shown to be a useful addition to anatomical imaging in the preoperative localization and molecular assessment of HNPGLs. It is estimated that the frequency of metabolically active PGLs on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT in this region is higher than 90%. For patients with hereditary PGL syndromes, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT should be reserved. Imaging of somatostatin receptors using Octreoscan or 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogues plays an important role for selecting patients for targeted radiation therapy. This review also concludes that it is expected that in the near future, these patients will indeed benefit from new diagnostic approaches based on the identification of new targets by molecular profiling studies that will result in the development of novel PGL-specific radiopharamceuticals.Seminars in nuclear medicine 11/2013; 43(6):462-473. DOI:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2013.06.005 · 3.34 Impact Factor