SWIFT: Prospective 48-Week Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Switching to Emtricitabine/Tenofovir From Lamivudine/Abacavir in Virologically Suppressed HIV-1 Infected Patients on a Boosted Protease Inhibitor Containing Antiretroviral Regimen
ABSTRACT Background. In the United States, emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) is a preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone with lamivudine/abacavir (3TC/ABC) as a commonly used alternative. For patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) virologically suppressed on a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) + 3TC/ABC regimen, the merits of switching to FTC/TDF as the NRTI backbone are unknown.
Methods. SWIFT was a prospective, randomized, open-label 48-week study to evaluate efficacy and safety of switching to FTC/TDF. Subjects receiving 3TC/ABC + PI + ritonavir (RTV) with HIV-1 RNA < 200 c/mL ≥3 months were randomized to continue 3TC/ABC or switch to FTC/TDF. The primary endpoint was time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR) with noninferiority measured by delta of 12%. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as confirmed rebound or the last HIV-1 RNA measurement on study drug ≥200 c/mL.
Results. In total, 311 subjects were treated in this study (155 to PI + RTV + FTC/TDF, 156 to PI + RTV + 3TC/ABC). Baseline characteristics were similar between the arms: 85% male, 28% black, median age, 46 years; and median CD4 532 cells/mm3. By TLOVR through week 48, switching to FTC/TDF was noninferior compared to continued 3TC/ABC (86.4% vs 83.3%, treatment difference 3.0% (95% confidence interval, −5.1% to 11.2%). Fewer subjects on FTC/TDF experienced VF (3 vs 11; P = .034). FTC/TDF showed greater declines in fasting low-density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) with significant declines in LDL and TC beginning at week 12 with no TC/HDL ratio change. Switching to FTC/TDF showed improved NCEP thresholds for TC and TG and improved 10-year Framingham TC calculated scores. Decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (eGFR) was observed in both arms with a larger decrease in the FTC/TDF arm.
Conclusions. Switching to FTC/TDF from 3TC/ABC maintained virologic suppression, had fewer VFs, improved lipid parameters and Framingham scores but decreased eGFR.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier. NCT00724711.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: John F Flaherty, Jan 07, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will continue to evolve as improved treatments and life expectancy of these patients increases. Although initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been shown to reduce this risk, some ARV medications may induce metabolic abnormalities, further compounding the risk of CVD. In this patient population, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies should be employed to treat and reduce further risk of CVD. This review summarizes epidemiology data of the risk factors and development of CVD in HIV and provides recommendations to manage CVD in HIV-infected patients.The Open AIDS Journal 03/2015; 9(1):23-37. DOI:10.2174/1874613601509010023
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Despite antiretroviral (ARV) therapy reducing renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus overall, there is concern that certain ARVs, particularly tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with or without a boosted protease inhibitor (PI), may reduce renal function over time. It is not known whether effects seen with PI-based regimens are independent, result from interactions with TDF coadministration, or are artefactual owing to inhibition of renal tubular creatinine transport by ritonavir or cobicistat pharmacoenhancement. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic review of studies, weighted toward high-quality evidence, examining changes in renal function over time with PI-based regimens. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases and conference abstracts were searched using pre-defined terms for English language articles, published up to and including August 12, 2013, describing changes in renal function over time with PI-based regimens. All available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected; however, to reduce bias, only observational studies recruiting from more than one center and analyzing data from more than 1,000 patients were included. Evidence was qualitatively evaluated according to levels established by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM). Results A total of 2,322 articles were retrieved by the initial search. Of these, 37 were selected for full review, comprising 24 RCTs (OCEBM Level 1 evidence: 4 reports of fully double-blinded or blinded with respect to the PI component). The remaining 20 RCTs and 13 observational studies qualified as OCEBM Level 2 evidence. Level 1 evidence showed initial but non-progressive increases in serum creatinine and corresponding decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), suggesting an effect on renal tubular transport of creatinine. Level 2 evidence suggested that atazanavir and lopinavir especially in combination with TDF were associated with non-progressive reductions in eGFR over time, with a decreased risk for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on cessation and without the development of advanced CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD); whether these reductions were independent or associated with interactions with coadministered TDF could not be established with certainty. Data on darunavir were insufficient to draw any conclusions. The principal limitation of the reviewed studies was the lack of standardization of creatinine measurements in virtually all studies and the lack of corroborative data on changes in proteinuria or other indices of renal function. Discussion In this review, there was little evidence for progressive changes in eGFR, or the development of advanced CKD, or ESRD with lopinavir or atazanavir. Further long-term studies, employing a wide range of validated renal function assessments, are required to fully evaluate potential association of PIs with CKD.01/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1007/s40121-014-0056-4
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ABSTRACT: Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV infection has been associated with dyslipidemia and metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Available options for patients at risk of cardiovascular disease include antiretroviral drugs with improved lipid profiles. Dolutegravir is one of a new generation of HIV integrase inhibitors recently incorporated into the US Department of Health and Human Services, German, Spanish, and Italian HIV treatment guidelines as a preferred first-line third agent in combination with dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone therapies. To understand the lipid profile of dolutegravir in the context of combination ART, we analyzed the lipid outcomes at 48 weeks in ART-naive participants in four phase IIb-IIIb clinical trials. Variables included in this analysis were total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL ratio, and triglycerides at baseline and week 48. In a comparative analysis, dolutegravir demonstrated a broadly neutral effect on lipids versus efavirenz or ritonavir-boosted darunavir; in both comparisons, patients taking dolutegravir exhibited smaller increases in TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels. In comparison with raltegravir, dolutegravir exhibited a similar lipid profile, including small increases in TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels for both agents. In the pooled dolutegravir analysis, minimal increases in LDL-C and triglycerides were observed but mean values at 48 weeks remained below National Cholesterol Education Program target levels. HDL-C levels increased at 48 weeks, and the mean TC/HDL-C ratio was 0.6 at 48 weeks; these values are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Together, these data show that dolutegravir has a safer lipid profile in combination ART and provides an important treatment option for older patients who may have other risk factors for metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease.Clinical Drug Investigation 01/2015; 35(3). DOI:10.1007/s40261-014-0266-2 · 1.70 Impact Factor