aDepartment of Environmental Health (Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston bPulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications, such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease.
Cessation of exposure to cotton dust leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population ratio as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton dust-related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers.
Textile dust-related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is currently no standard tool for the measurement of asthma in epidemiological studies. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of asthma, to describe the potential local risk factors, and to assess the agreement between written and video questionnaires in 13- to 14-year-old schoolchildren.
We performed a cross-sectional study involving 5427 adolescents in 26 schools. Prevalence of asthma symptoms were evaluated using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written and video questionnaire. The adolescents were asked additional questions for risk factors of asthma.
The prevalence of lifetime wheeze, wheeze in the last 12 months and doctor-diagnosed asthma with written questionnaire were found as 13.5%, 6.3% and 11.2% respectively. Prevalence of lifetime wheeze, wheeze in the last 12 months, wheeze after exercise in the last 12 months, with video questionnaire were found as 9.6%, 5.5%, 11.9% and 1.9% respectively. The proportion of total agreement between the two questionnaires was high (0.77-0.81) with poor kappa value (0.25-0.50). In multivariate analysis, family history of atopy, stuffed toys and accompaniment of children to their parents after school hours in textile industry were found as risk factors for asthma. In addition kind of bird, such as canary was found as a risk factor.
Prevalence of asthma is moderate in Turkey. Agreement between the two questionnaires was high. Accompaniment of children to their parents in textile industry is a newly-described risk factor for asthma.
Allergologia et Immunopathologia 08/2013; 42(6). DOI:10.1016/j.aller.2013.05.004 · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silk fibers have been used in textiles for more than 5,000 years and as a suturing material for many centuries. The recent development of new applications for silks include drug delivery. An overview of this new field is provided, summarizing the development of emerging drug delivery applications which include silk-based nanomedicines and transdermal delivery systems We also highlight some of the challenges in developing silk-based drug delivery systems.
Israel Journal of Chemistry (Online) 09/2013; 53(9‐10). DOI:10.1002/ijch.201300083 · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airborne endotoxin exposure has adverse and protective health effects. Studies show men have augmented acute inflammatory responses to endotoxin. In this longitudinal cohort study we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to endotoxin in cotton dust on health, and determined whether these effects differ by gender.
In the Shanghai Textile Worker Study, 447 cotton and 472 control silk textile workers were followed from 1981 to 2011 with repeated measures of occupational endotoxin exposure, spirometry and health questionnaires. Impaired lung function was defined as a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second to less than the 5th centile of population predicted. Death was ascertained by death registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the effect of endotoxin exposure on the time to development of impaired lung function and death.
128 deaths and 164 diagnoses of impaired lung function were ascertained between 1981 and 2011. HRs for the composite end point of impaired lung function or death was 1.47 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.97) for cotton vs silk workers and 1.04 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.07) per 10 000 endotoxin units (EU)/m(3)-years increase in exposure. HRs for all-cause mortality was 1.36 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.99) for cotton vs silk workers and 1.04 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.08) per 10 000 EU/m(3)-years. The risk associated with occupational endotoxin exposure was elevated only in men.
Occupational endotoxin exposure is associated with an increase in the risk of impaired lung function and all-cause mortality in men.
Occupational and environmental medicine 12/2013; 71(2). DOI:10.1136/oemed-2013-101676 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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