Evaluation of Efficacy of Probiotics in Prevention of Candida Colonization in a PICU-A Randomized Controlled Trial
ABSTRACT : To evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in prevention of Candida colonization in a PICU.
: Prospective double blinded, randomized controlled trial.
: PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India.
: One hundred fifty children (106 boys, 44 girls), 3 months to 12 yrs old, on broad spectrum antibiotics for at least 48 hrs were randomized using computer-generated random numbers to receive probiotic mix (EUGI) (n = 75) or placebo (n = 75).
: Patients received one sachet twice a day of either probiotics or placebo for 7 days. Probiotics contained Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus rhamnosum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Saccharomyces boulardi, Saccharomyces thermophilus, fructo-oligosaccharides; and placebo-contained lactose packed in similar-looking sachets. Rectal swabs for fungal culture were taken at day 0, 7, and 14 of enrollment. Primary outcome measure was prevalence of rectal colonization with Candida on day 14 postenrollment; secondary outcomes were growth of Candida in urine (candiduria) and blood (candidemia). Patients were followed until completion of 14 days study period or death of patient.
: Demographic and clinical variables were comparable in two groups. Prevalence of Candida colonization on day 0 was similar (15 of 75) in both the groups. On day 7, 27.9% (19 of 68) patients in the probiotic group and 42.6% (29 of 68) patients in the placebo group were colonized (relative risk 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.41-1.05; p = 0.07), whereas, on day 14, colonization was observed in 31.3% (21 of 67) patients in the probiotic group and 50% (34 of 68) in the placebo group (relative risk 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.96; p = 0.02). Thus, the relative reduction in prevalence of Candida colonization on day 7 and 14 in the probiotic group was 34.5% and 37.2%, respectively. The increase in number of colonized patients from day 0 to 7 and day 0 to 14 was significant in the placebo group (p = 0.004 and 0.001, respectively) but not in the probiotic group (p = 0.30 and 0.19, respectively; McNemar test). Candiduria was significantly less common in the probiotic group than in the placebo group (17.3% vs. 37.3%; relative risk 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.82; p = 0.006). However, prevalence of candidemia did not differ significantly in two groups (1.6% in the probiotic group vs. 6.35% in placebo group; relative risk 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.08-2.74; p = 0.39).
: Supplementation with probiotics could be a potential strategy to reduce gastrointestinal Candida colonization and candiduria in critically ill children receiving broad spectrum antibiotics.
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ABSTRACT: To compare the prevalence of candidemia and candiduria before and after the introduction of routine use of probiotics in children who received broad-spectrum antibiotics in a PICU. Retrospective "before and after" study. A 12-bed PICU of a teaching hospital in India. Children 3 months to 12 years old, admitted to the PICU over two 9 months' time periods, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics for more than 48 hours. Three hundred forty-four patients enrolled between November 2008 and July 2009 after the introduction of routine use of probiotics served as the "probiotic group"; they had received one sachet twice a day of a probiotic mix (EUGI [Wallace Pharma, Goa, India] containing Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus rhamnosum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Saccharomyces boulardii, and Streptococcus thermophilus) for 7 days. Three hundred seventy-six children enrolled between February 2007 and October 2007 served as "controls." Blood was sent for bacterial and fungal cultures if clinically indicated and urine catheter/bag specimen was submitted for bacterial and fungal culture twice a week as per unit's protocol. Primary outcome was growth of Candida in blood (candidemia), and secondary outcomes were growth of Candida in urine (candiduria), nosocomial bloodstream infections, and urinary tract infections. Data were retrieved from the case records. Candidemia was seen in four of 344 patients (1.2%) in the probiotic group and in 14 of 376 (3.7%) in the control group (relative risk, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.94; p = 0.03). Candiduria was noted in 37 of 344 patients (10.7%) in the probiotic group and 83 of 376 (22%) in the control group (relative risk, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.34-0.7; p = 0.0001). The prevalence of nosocomial bloodstream infection and urinary tract infection in the probiotic and control groups was 20.3% and 26% (p = 0.07) and 14.2% and 19.1% (p = 0.08), respectively. Routine use of a mix of probiotics in patients who receive broad-spectrum antibiotics could be a useful strategy to reduce the prevalence of candidemia and candiduria in the PICU.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 08/2013; 14(9). DOI:10.1097/PCC.0b013e31829f5d88 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fact that the bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract play a symbiotic role was noted as early as 1885, well before we began to manage microbial infections using antibiotics. However, even with the first antimicrobial compounds used in humans, the sulfa drugs, microbes were recognized to be critically involved in the biotransformation of these therapeutics. Thus, the roles played by the microbiota in physiology and in the management of human health have long been appreciated. Detailed examinations of GI symbiotic bacteria that started in the early 2000s and the first phases of the Human Microbiome Project that were completed in 2012 have ushered in an exciting period of granularity with respect to the ecology, genetics, and chemistry of the mammalian-microbial axes of communication. Here we review aspects of the biochemical pathways at play between commensal GI bacteria and several mammalian systems, including both local-epithelia and nonlocal responses including inflammation, immunology, metabolism, and neurobiology. Finally, we discuss how the microbial biotransformation of therapeutic compounds, such as anticancer or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can be modulated to reduce toxicity and potentially improve therapeutic efficacy. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 54 is January 06, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Pharmacology 10/2013; 54(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-011613-140007 · 18.52 Impact Factor
- Intensive Care Medicine 12/2013; 40(2). DOI:10.1007/s00134-013-3172-9 · 7.21 Impact Factor