Here we use the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 endonuclease complexed with dual-RNAs to introduce precise mutations in the genomes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The approach relies on dual-RNA:Cas9-directed cleavage at the targeted genomic site to kill unmutated cells and circumvents the need for selectable markers or counter-selection systems. We reprogram dual-RNA:Cas9 specificity by changing the sequence of short CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to make single- and multinucleotide changes carried on editing templates. Simultaneous use of two crRNAs enables multiplex mutagenesis. In S. pneumoniae, nearly 100% of cells that were recovered using our approach contained the desired mutation, and in E. coli, 65% that were recovered contained the mutation, when the approach was used in combination with recombineering. We exhaustively analyze dual-RNA:Cas9 target requirements to define the range of targetable sequences and show strategies for editing sites that do not meet these requirements, suggesting the versatility of this technique for bacterial genome engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CRISPR/Cas, a microbial adaptive immune system, has recently been reshaped as a versatile genome editing approach, endowing genome engineering with high efficiency and robustness. The DNA endonuclease Cas, a component of CRISPR system, is directed to specific target within genomes by guide RNA (gRNA) and performs gene editing function. However, the system is still in its infancy and facing enormous challenges such as off-target mutation. Lots of attempts have been made to overcome such off-targeting and proven to be effective. In this review we focused on recent progress of increasing the CRISPR
specificity realized by rational design of gRNA and modification of Cas9 endonuclease. Meanwhile the methods to screen off-target mutation and their effects are also discussed. Comprehensive consideration and rational design to reduce off-target mutation and selection of effective screening assay will greatly facilitate to achieve successful CRISPR/Cas system mediated gene editing.
Current issues in molecular biology 10/2015; 20:1-12. · 5.75 Impact Factor
"Data generated from the completion of both tasks will be of particular significance to users of strain OV14 and the broader species of E. adhaerens. More specifically, the additional characterization in this study of putative kanamycin-resistant genes provides potential targets for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing , which has been described as a realistic protocol with which to edit prokaryotic genomes (Jiang et al. 2013). "
"In E. coli, Jiang et al. (2013) was the first to report CRISPR–Cas9 mediated genome editing. The authors used ssDNA as editing template and achieved 65% efficiency for introducing a codon replacement. "
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