: The purpose of this study was to assess and describe the practices involved in the insertion and maintenance of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in neonates in level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States and to compare the findings with current recommendations and evidence.
: The study included responses from 187 nurses, nurse practitioners, and neonatologists who place PICCs in NICUs representing 43 states.
: A 90-question, multiple-choice survey of a variety of PICC practices was sent to NICU directors and nursing staff responsible for PICC insertion. The explorative survey was sent by electronic and standard mail services. A descriptive analysis of the responses was performed.
: Main outcome measures included the response rate to the survey and the summarized responses of multiple categories of PICC practices.
: Of the 460 level III NICUs contacted, 187 returned surveys meeting criteria for analysis, yielding a 42% response rate. Responses showed wide variation of PICC practices in multiple aspects of PICC insertion and maintenance. The greatest level of conformity was seen with the following practices: use of 2 nurses to perform a dressing change, trimming the PICC, using a kit or cart containing insertion supplies, use of maximal sterile barrier precautions during insertion, catheter tip residing in the superior vena cava for upper body insertions, and not heparin locking, infusing blood products, performing catheter repair, or inserting using Modified Seldinger Technique. Some identified practices, such as infusion tubing change and catheter entry techniques, were contrary to current evidence and demonstrated a lack of correct information, and some represented safety concerns for the neonates having PICCs.
: This extensive national survey of NICU PICC practices showed wide variation in multiple aspects of PICC insertion and maintenance. A gap between the evidence and current practice was evident in many facets of training, insertion techniques, and maintenance processes. The data suggest a need for an increase in awareness of clinicians of current practice guidelines and standards and the need for further research to develop an evidence basis for many aspects of PICC care where lacking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Central lines in NICUs have long dwell times. Success in reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) requires a multidisciplinary team approach to line maintenance and insertion. The Perinatal Quality Collaborative of North Carolina (PQCNC) CLABSI project supported the development of NICU teams including parents, the implementation of an action plan with unique bundle elements and a rigorous reporting schedule. The goal was to reduce CLABSI rates by 75%.
Thirteen NICUs participated in an initiative developed over 3 months and deployed over 9 months. Teams participated in monthly webinars and quarterly face-to-face learning sessions. NICUs reported on bundle compliance and National Health Surveillance Network infection rates at baseline, during the intervention, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. Process and outcome indicators were analyzed using statistical process control methods (SPC).
Near-daily maintenance observations were requested for all lines with a 68% response rate. SPC analysis revealed a trend to an increase in bundle compliance. We also report significant adoption of a new maintenance bundle element, central line removal when enteral feedings reached 120 ml/kg per day. The PQCNC CLABSI rate decreased 71%, from 3.94 infections per 1000 line days to 1.16 infections per 1000 line days with sustainment 1 year later (P = .01).
A collaborative structure targeting team development, family partnership, unique bundle elements and strict reporting on line care produced the largest reduction in CLABSI rates for any multiinstitutional NICU collaborative.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this secondary analysis of results from a national survey of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) practices in neonates was to determine whether demographics and types of training were associated with differing radiographic confirmation practices of these catheters. Correlational analyses were performed on the 2010 national database of neonatal PICC practices. The sample consisted of 187 respondents, representing 25% of the level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of more than 20 beds in the United States. The key factors examined were geographic location, size of NICU, academic affiliation, and type of training related to radiographic confirmation of the catheter tip position, routine monitoring and reconfirmation of the catheter tip position following adjustments, and associated patient positioning practices for consistent evaluation of the catheter tip position. Formal training and annual retraining were statistically significantly associated with consistent patient positioning practices for more accurate monitoring of the catheter tip position and acceptable tip location. Size of NICU and academic affiliation were not associated with differences in practices. Adherence to specific national guidelines and recommendations for care of infants with PICCs is significantly impacted by formal training and annual retraining. This underscores the importance of education and annual retraining in preventing PICC-related complications beyond the crucial prevention of central line–associated bloodstream infections.
Advances in Neonatal Care 06/2014; 14(5). DOI:10.1097/ANC.0000000000000090 · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Central venous catheter infections are the leading cause of healthcare associated bloodstream infections and contribute significantly to mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Moreover, infection poses significant economic consequence which increased hospital costs and increased length of hospital stay. Prevention strategies are detailed in guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, nevertheless, recent surveys in neonatal units in the United States and Australia and New Zealand demonstrate these are not always followed. This review discusses the numerous evidence-based strategies to prevent catheter infections including hand hygiene, maximal sterile barriers during insertion, skin disinfection, selection of insertion site, dressings, aseptic non touch technique, disinfection of catheter hubs / ports, administration set management, prompt removal of catheter, antibiotic locks, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and chlorhexidine bathing. Furthermore, it will describe different strategies that can be implemented into clinical practice to reduce infection rates. These include the use of care bundles including checklists, education and the use of CVC teams.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 07/2014; 28(10):1-21. DOI:10.3109/14767058.2014.949663 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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