Towards Rational Use of Antibiotics for Suspected Secondary Infections in Buruli Ulcer Patients

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases, Groningen, The Netherlands.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.49). 01/2013; 7(1):e2010. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The emerging disease Buruli ulcer is treated with streptomycin and rifampicin and surgery if necessary. Frequently other antibiotics are used during treatment.
Information on prescribing behavior of antibiotics for suspected secondary infections and for prophylactic use was collected retrospectively. Of 185 patients that started treatment for Buruli ulcer in different centers in Ghana and Bénin 51 were admitted. Forty of these 51 admitted patients (78%) received at least one course of antibiotics other than streptomycin and rifampicin during their hospital stay. The median number (IQR) of antibiotic courses for admitted patients was 2 (1, 5). Only twelve patients received antibiotics for a suspected secondary infection, all other courses were prescribed as prophylaxis of secondary infections extended till 10 days on average after excision, debridement or skin grafting. Antibiotic regimens varied considerably per indication. In another group of BU patients in two centers in Bénin , superficial wound cultures were performed. These cultures from superficial swabs represented bacteria to be expected from a chronic wound, but 13 of the 34 (38%) S. aureus were MRSA.
A guide for rational antibiotic treatment for suspected secondary infections or prophylaxis is needed. Adherence to the guideline proposed in this article may reduce and tailor antibiotic use other than streptomycin and rifampicin in Buruli ulcer patients. It may save costs, reduce toxicity and limit development of further antimicrobial resistance. This topic should be included in general protocols on the management of Buruli ulcer.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease is common in some humid tropical areas, particularly in parts of West Africa, and current management is by surgical excision of skin lesions ranging from early nodules to extensive ulcers (Buruli ulcer). Antibiotic therapy would be more accessible to patients in areas of Buruli ulcer endemicity. We report a study of the efficacy of antibiotics in converting early lesions (nodules and plaques) from culture positive to culture negative. Lesions were excised either immediately or after treatment with rifampin orally at 10 mg/kg of body weight and streptomycin intramuscularly at 15 mg/kg of body weight daily for 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks and examined by quantitative bacterial culture, PCR, and histopathology for M. ulcerans. Lesions were measured during treatment. Five lesions excised without antibiotic treatment and five lesions treated with antibiotics for 2 weeks were culture positive, whereas three lesions treated for 4 weeks, five treated for 8 weeks, and three treated for 12 weeks were culture negative. No lesions became enlarged during antibiotic treatment, and most became smaller. Treatment with rifampin and streptomycin for 4 weeks or more inhibited growth of M. ulcerans in human tissue, and it provides a basis for proceeding to a trial of antibiotic therapy as an alternative to surgery for early M. ulcerans disease.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2005; 49(8):3182-6. DOI:10.1128/AAC.49.8.3182-3186.2005 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the emergence of Buruli-ulcer disease in West African countries over the past decade has been dramatic. Current evidence suggests that the infection is transmitted through abraded skin or mild traumatic injuries after contact with contaminated water, soil, or vegetation; there is one unconfirmed preliminary report on possible transmission by insects. The clinical picture ranges from a painless nodule to large, undermined ulcerative lesions that heal spontaneously but slowly. Most patients are children. The disease is accompanied by remarkably few systemic symptoms, but occasionally secondary infections resulting in sepsis or tetanus cause severe systemic disease and death. Extensive scarring can lead to contractures of the limbs, blindness, and other adverse sequelae, which impose a substantial health and economic burden. Treatment is still primarily surgical, and includes excision, skin grafting, or both. Although BCG has a mild but significant protective effect, new vaccine developments directed at the toxins produced by M. ulcerans are warranted. In West Africa, affected populations are underprivileged, and the economic burden imposed by Buruli-ulcer disease is daunting. Combined efforts to improve treatment, prevention, control, and research strategies (overseen by the WHO and funded by international relief agencies) are urgently needed.
    The Lancet 10/1999; 354(9183):1013-8. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01156-3 · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is among the most important causes of nosocomial infections. It possesses a particular ability to spread in hospitals worldwide. To analyze the proportion of MRSA among S. aureus isolated from specimen taken for diagnosis purposes. To make the medical staff aware of the problem of MRSA infections and to take a better care of patients. During 3 months, a prospective study was carried out in the neonatal unit of centre hospitalier départemental du Zou et Collines in Benin. We identified newborn carriers of SA, particularly MRSA and factors associated with the carriage. Two hundred and ninety patients were admitted in the 3 divisions of the neonatal unit. From 195 specimens examined for diagnosis purposes 48 h after hospitalization, 112 patients were detected by nose swabbing. Concurrently, swabbing of environment was achieved. Among patients'specimens, 141 isolations of S. aureus were observed. The proportion of MRSA was 36% amongst diagnostic specimens. MRSA represented 39% of the environment specimens. None of the isolated MRSA produces Panton Valentine leukocidin. Our survey revealed a high level of MRSA among S. aureus isolated from diagnostic specimens. Consecutive to such findings and for decreasing nosocomial infection, an appropriate prevention program was installed, including intensive promotion of hands hygiene, correct sterilization and disinfection of materials and patients.
    Archives de Pédiatrie 12/2006; 13(11):1391-6. DOI:10.1016/j.arcped.2006.07.004 · 0.41 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014