Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions
ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.
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ABSTRACT: Increasingly, nurses' time and attention is taken up with processes and procedures designed to improve patient safety, and rightly so. In March of this year, Consumer Reports released a new guide "How Safe Is Your Hospital?" This guide was developed to help patients choose facilities based on their safety and commitment to quality. In addition, changes in health care legislation will further reinforce the need to pay close attention to both patient safety and satisfaction. Are you ready?Neonatal network: NN 07/2014; 32(4):301-8. DOI:10.1891/0730-0818.104.22.1681
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence describing the safety of ganciclovir and foscarnet in neonates in order to guide treatment for central nervous system or disseminated herpes simplex infections in cases of acyclovir shortage or resistance. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid Medline, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the thesaurus and text-word terms “ganciclovir” and “foscarnet,” with birth to 1 month age limits. Thirty-two eligible publications describing safety in neonates were identified. RESULTS: In 340 neonates treated for cytomegalovirus (CMV), life-threatening neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <0.5 × 109/L) was reported in 8.8% of patients following up to 12 months of ganciclovir administered intravenously. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 25.6% and 6.2% of neonates, respectively. Changes in serum creatinine concentration of >0.2 mg/dL occurred in <1% of neonates. Hepatic transaminase increases or unspecified changes in liver function tests were reported in 6.2% of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia being observed in 3.5% of total neonates. Three out of four neonates receiving foscarnet for acyclovir-resistant herpes infection or CMV survived with minimal sequelae. Neither nephrotoxicity nor electrolyte or mineral imbalances were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen in adolescents and adults, ganciclovir use in neonates is commonly associated with neutropenia, and the frequency of occurrence is comparable. The link between hepatotoxicity and ganciclovir should be interpreted with caution because of overlapping clinical manifestations of CMV. Only case reports are available describing foscarnet use in neonates, but adverse drug reactions were not observed. More research on these two agents is needed to draw conclusions about adverse drug reaction rates in the neonatal population.04/2014; 19(2):72-82. DOI:10.5863/1551-6776-19.2.72
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ABSTRACT: Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. All infants are potentially at risk for neonatal HSV infection. This position statement reviews epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, with a focus on intrapartum infection. It considers diagnosis and prognosis according to infection category, along with testing modalities and limitations. Recommendations for managing newborns known to have been exposed intrapartum to HSV are based on expert opinion because a randomized trial to compare management options is not feasible. Guidance is provided for the empirical management of infants with suspected clinical sepsis, including those who do not respond to antibacterial therapy. The present statement replaces a 2006 position statement by the Canadian Paediatric Society.