OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of prophylactic headache treatment in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials, and bibliography of retrieved articles through August 11, 2012. STUDY SELECTION Randomized trials of headache treatment among children and adolescents (<18 years old). INTERVENTION Any placebo-controlled trial or comparisons between 2 or more active medications. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Number of headaches per month. RESULTS Among 21 included trials, there were 13 placebo-controlled and 10 active comparator trials (2 also included placebo). Twenty trials focused on episodic migraines and 1 on chronic daily headaches. Drugs more effective than placebo for episodic migraines (<15 headaches per month) included topiramate (difference in headaches per month, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.19 to -0.24) and trazodone (-0.60; 95% CI, -1.09 to -0.11). Ineffective drugs included clonidine, flunarizine, pizotifen, propranolol, and valproate. A single trial of fluoxetine for chronic daily headaches found it ineffective. Patients given placebo experienced a significant (P = .03) decline in headaches, from 5.6 (95% CI, 4.52-6.77; Q = 8.14 [Cochran Q is a measure of the heterogeneity of the included studies]) to 2.9 headaches per month (95% CI, 1.66-4.08; Q = 4.72). Among the 10 active comparator trials, flunarizine was more effective than piracetam (difference in headaches per month, -2.20; 95% CI, -3.93 to -0.47) but no better than aspirin, dihydroergotamine, or propranolol. Propranolol was compared with valproate as well as behavioral treatment, and 2 studies compared different doses of topiramate; none of these trials showed significant differences. CONCLUSIONS Topiramate and trazodone have limited evidence supporting efficacy for episodic migraines. Placebo was effective in reducing headaches. Other commonly used drugs have no evidence supporting their use in children and adolescents. More research is needed.
"On average, 20 mg of amitriptyline and 300 mg of gabapentin were effective. These results are similar to those from the few other studies examining amitriptyline as a preventive medication in patients with chronic headaches, although no studies have examined CTTH exclusively (Bonfert et al., 2013; El-Chammas et al., 2013; Hershey et al., 2000). Only 8 of the 44 patients in the pharmacologic group were given gabapentin, thus, increasing our confidence in Table 1 Sample characteristics by treatment group. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in children and adolescents is a serious medical condition, with considerable morbidity and few effective, evidence-based treatments. We performed a chart review of 83 adolescents (age range = 13–18 years; 67 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with CTTH. Two treatment protocols were compared: multimodal (osteopathic manipulative treatments, mindfulness, and qi gong) and pharmacologic (amitriptyline or gabapentin). Four outcomes (headache frequency, pain intensity, general health, and health interference) were assessed at three time points (baseline, 3 months, and 6 months). A fifth outcome, number of bilateral tender points, was recorded at baseline and 6 months. All five were evaluated statistically with a linear mixed model. Although both multimodal and pharmacologic treatments were effective for CTTH (time effects for all measures were significant at p < .001), results from each analysis favored multimodal treatment (the five group by time interaction effects were significant at or below the p < .001 level). Headache frequency in the pharmacologic group, for example, reduced from a monthly average (95% Confidence Interval shown in parentheses) of 23.9 (21.8, 26.0) to 16.4 (14.3, 18.6) and in the multimodal group from 22.3 (20.1, 24.5) to 4.9 (2.6, 7.2) (a substantial group difference). Pain intensity (worst in the last 24 hours, 0-10 scale) was reduced in the pharmacologic group from 6.2 (5.6, 6.9) to 3.4 (2.7, 4.1) and from 6.1 (5.4, 6.8) to 2.0 (1.2, 2.7) in the multimodal group (a less substantial difference). Across the other three assessments, group differences were larger for general health and number of tender points and less so for pain restriction. Multimodal treatment for adolescent CTTH appears to be effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these promising results.
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.02.003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Empirical evidence of the important role of the family in primary pediatric headache has grown significantly in the last few years, although the interconnections between the dysfunctional process and the family interaction are still unclear. Even though the role of parenting in childhood migraine is well known, no studies about the personality of parents of migraine children have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to assess, using an objective measure, the personality profile of mothers of children affected by migraine without aura (MoA).
A total of 269 mothers of MoA children (153 male, 116 female, aged between 6 and 12 years; mean 8.93 ± 3.57 years) were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of mothers of 587 healthy children (316 male, 271 female, mean age 8.74 ± 3.57 years) randomly selected from schools in the Campania, Umbria, Calabria, and Sicily regions. Each mother filled out the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - second edition (MMPI-2), widely used to diagnose personality and psychological disorders. The t-test was used to compare age and MMPI-2 clinical basic and content scales between mothers of MoA and typical developing children, and Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the relation between MMPI-2 scores of mothers of MoA children and frequency, intensity, and duration of migraine attacks of their children.
Mothers of MoA children showed significantly higher scores in the paranoia and social introversion clinical basic subscales, and in the anxiety, obsessiveness, depression, health concerns, bizarre mentation, cynicism, type A, low self-esteem, work interference, and negative treatment indicator clinical content subscales (P < 0.001 for all variables). Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between MoA frequency of children and anxiety (r = 0.4903, P = 0.024) and low self-esteem (r = 0.5130, P = 0.017), while the MoA duration of children was related with hypochondriasis (r = 0.6155, P = 0.003), hysteria (r = 0.6235, P = 0.003), paranoia (r = 0.5102, P = 0.018), psychasthenia (r = 0.4806, P = 0.027), schizophrenia (r = 0.4350, P = 0.049), anxiety (r = 0.4332, P = 0.050), and health concerns (r = 0.7039, P < 0.001) MMPI-2 scores of their mothers.
This could be considered a preliminary study that indicates the potential value of maternal personality assessment for better comprehension and clinical management of children affected by migraine, though further studies on the other primary headaches are necessary.
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