Managed Problem Solving for Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence A Randomized Trial
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is critical to successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Few interventions have been demonstrated to improve both adherence and virologic outcomes. We sought to determine whether an intervention derived from problem solving theory, Managed Problem Solving (MAPS), would improve antiretroviral outcomes. METHODS We conducted a randomized investigator blind trial of MAPS compared with usual care in HIV-1 infected individuals at 3 HIV clinics in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Eligible patients had plasma HIV-1 viral loads greater than 1000 copies/mL and were initiating or changing therapy. Managed Problem Solving consists of 4 in-person and 12 telephone-based meetings with a trained interventionist, then monthly follow-up calls for a year. Primary outcome was medication adherence measured using electronic monitors, summarized as fraction of doses taken quarterly over 1 year. Secondary outcome was undetectable HIV viral load over 1 year. We assessed 218 for eligibility, with 190 eligible and 180 enrolled, 91 randomized to MAPS and 89 to usual care. Fifty-six participants were lost to follow-up: 33 in the MAPS group and 23 in usual care group. RESULTS In primary intention-to-treat analyses, the odds of being in a higher adherence category was 1.78 (95% CI,1.07-2.96) times greater for MAPS than usual care. In secondary analyses, the odds of an undetectable viral load was 1.48 (95% CI, 0.94-2.31) times greater for MAPS than usual care. In as-treated analyses, the effect of MAPS was stronger for both outcomes. There was neither a difference by prior treatment status nor change in effect over time. CONCLUSIONS Managed Problem Solving is an effective antiretroviral adherence intervention over the first year with a new regimen. It was equally effective at improving adherence in treatment experienced and naïve patients and did not lose effect over time. Implementation of MAPS should be strongly considered where resources are available. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00130273.
SourceAvailable from: Bernard Vrijens[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nonadherence to prescribed medications can lead to medical complications, disease progression, hospitalizations, overestimated dosing requirements, impaired quality of life, and death, as well as incurring substantive costs for the healthcare system from suboptimal dosing during ambulatory pharmacotherapy. Adherence can be improved by helping patients build habits of taking prescribed medications, impacting day-to-day implementation of and persistence with rationally prescribed drug dosing regimens. Accurate, easily understood and personally relevant feedback is clearly relevant to many patients in this process. There is a clear-cut need for studies specifically designed to investigate interventions aimed at improving adherence, taking into account the sometimes complex nature of these interventions. Implementation of results from such studies can be expected to improve outcomes. For scientific progress to be maintained in this field, there is also a clear need for consistent use of a sound taxonomy for the dosing errors that comprise poor adherence (distinguishing between initiation, implementation and discontinuation), and for interventions performed to improve adherence.Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2014; DOI:10.1586/17512433.2014.940896
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Several studies have shown the importance of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in achieving HIV-1 suppression. However, most have focused on naïve patients and do not assess the impact of HAART on viral load (VL). Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of an adherence program in a cohort of multitreated and poorly adherent patients. We performed a cohort study of all adult HIV-1 infected patients with detectable VL who were treatment experienced and poorly adherent to HAART, included in an adherence program since its introduction in 2009 (n=136). The adherence program consisted of a multidisciplinary team with a nurse who specialized in behavioral intervention, counselling on substance abuse, and motivational interviewing, as well as a social worker responsible for referring patients to local healthcare centers. Effectiveness was evaluated as percentage of patients with VL <50 copies/mL at week 48 by modified intent-to-treat (mITT) analysis. Initially, 76.6% of the patients had an adherence <30% according to the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ). At 48 weeks, 48.1% of the patients had VL <50 copies/mL, and the adherence was >90% in 71% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, a ratio of bottle refill per month >0.9 during the study [odds ratio (OR) 14.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.08-50.08, p<0.001] and being on a b.i.d. regimen (OR 12.5; 95% CI 1.81-86.4, p=0.010) were associated with an undetectable VL. In conclusion, the adherence program was successful in almost half of the patients, despite their long treatment experience and prior poor adherence. This strategy may help to prevent disease progression and the risk of HIV transmission in these patients.AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 08/2014; 28(10). DOI:10.1089/apc.2014.0097 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the course of adherence and cognition in HIV-infected individuals with either cocaine or heroin dependence and investigate independent predictors of cognition change. A prospective study over six months was undertaken in which adherence was measured by monthly electronic pill cap monitoring (Medication Event Monitoring System), while a comprehensive neuropsychological battery resulting in a composite score (NPZ8) was performed at baseline and six months. Multivariable regression models were performed in order to determine independent associations with change in cognition. There were 101 subjects at baseline, of whom 62% were male and 83% were non-Hispanic black. 46.6% of subjects at baseline had completed high school, 36.6% reported active cocaine use during the course of the study, and 0% reported active heroin use during the course of the study. 66 subjects completed the final cognitive assessment at six months. Subjects had markedly impaired cognitive function at baseline (NPZ8 -1.49) which persisted at six months (NPZ8 -1.47) in the group of study completers. There was an average monthly decrease in adherence of -2.91% overall (p = 0.008). In the multivariable model, each of the following variables: baseline cognition (R(2) change = 0.121, p = 0.006), cocaine use during the study (R(2) change = 0.059, p = 0.046), and monthly adherence change (R(2) change = 0.078, p = 0.018) independently contributed to NPZ8 change with an overall R(2) change = 0.219 (p = 0.001). This study shows an overall decrease in adherence over time in this population of subjects with a history of drug dependence. Active cocaine use, baseline cognition, and temporal adherence changes independently contributed to changes in cognition. Further study on enhancing adherence, cognition, and limiting drug abuse are warranted in this subgroup of HIV-infected individuals.AIDS Care 12/2014; 27(3):1-5. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2014.985183 · 1.60 Impact Factor