Generation of an HIV Resistant T-cell Line by Targeted "Stacking" of Restriction Factors.
ABSTRACT Restriction factors constitute a newly appreciated line of innate immune defense, blocking viral replication inside of infected cells. In contrast to these antiviral proteins, some cellular proteins, such as the CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 cell surface receptors, facilitate HIV replication. We have used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to insert a cocktail of anti-HIV restriction factors into the CCR5 locus in a T-cell reporter line, knocking out the CCR5 gene in the process. Mirroring the logic of highly active antiretroviral therapy, this strategy provides multiple parallel blocks to infection, dramatically limiting pathways for viral escape, without relying on random integration of transgenes into the genome. Because of the combination of blocks that this strategy creates, our modified T-cell lines are robustly resistant to both CCR5-tropic (R5-tropic) and CXCR4-tropic (X4-tropic) HIV-1. While zinc finger nuclease-mediated CCR5 disruption alone, which mimics the strategy being used in clinical trials, confers 16-fold protection against R5-tropic HIV, it has no effect against X4-tropic virus. Rhesus TRIM5α, chimeric human-rhesus TRIM5α, APOBEC3G D128K, or Rev M10 alone targeted to CCR5 confers significantly improved resistance to infection by both variants compared with CCR5 disruption alone. The combination of three factors targeted to CCR5 blocks infection at multiple stages, providing virtually complete protection against infection by R5-tropic and X4-tropic HIV.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2012.284.
SourceAvailable from: Wan-Gang Gu
Article: Genome editing-based HIV therapies[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genome editing (GE)-based HIV therapy is achieved by modification of infection-related genes to produce HIV-resistant cells followed by reinfusion of the modified cells into patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve a functional or actual cure for HIV infection. Despite multiple potential targets for GE-based HIV therapies, CCR5 is the most feasible owing to the naturally existing CCR5 δ32 genotype which confers resistance to HIV. A recent clinical trial of infusion of modified autologous CD4(+) T cells proved safety and efficacy within the limits of the studies. However, long-term evaluation of the safety and efficacy is required before GE-based HIV therapy is ready for clinical implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Trends in Biotechnology 01/2015; 33(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tibtech.2014.12.006 · 10.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current therapy for controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and preventing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells, which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or "sterile" cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which can excise any genome, provide a great opportunity to eradicate the HIV-1 genome by targeting highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 long terminal repeats or essential viral genes. Given the time consuming and costly engineering of target-specific ZFNs and TALENs, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 technology has emerged as a simpler and more versatile technology to allow permanent removal of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA in eukaryotic cells, and hopefully animal models or human patients. The major unmet challenges of this approach at present include inefficient nuclease gene delivery, potential off-target cleavage, and cell-specific genome targeting. Nanoparticle or lentivirus-mediated delivery of next generation Cas9 technologies including nickase or RNA-guided FokI nuclease (RFN) will further improve the potential for genome editing to become a promising approach for curing HIV-1/AIDS.Journal of NeuroVirology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13365-014-0308-9 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The β-thalassemias are a group of hereditary hematological diseases caused by over 300 mutations of the adult β-globin gene. Together with sickle cell anemia, thalassemia syndromes are among the most impactful diseases in developing countries, in which the lack of genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have contributed to the maintenance of a very high frequency of these genetic diseases in the population. Gene therapy for β-thalassemia has recently seen steadily accelerating progress and has reached a crossroads in its development. Presently, data from past and ongoing clinical trials guide the design of further clinical and preclinical studies based on gene augmentation, while fundamental insights into globin switching and new technology developments have inspired the investigation of novel gene-therapy approaches. Moreover, human erythropoietic stem cells from β-thalassemia patients have been the cellular targets of choice to date whereas future gene-therapy studies might increasingly draw on induced pluripotent stem cells. Herein, we summarize the most significant developments in β-thalassemia gene therapy over the last decade, with a strong emphasis on the most recent findings, for β-thalassemia model systems; for β-, γ-, and anti-sickling β-globin gene addition and combinatorial approaches including the latest results of clinical trials; and for novel approaches, such as transgene-mediated activation of γ-globin and genome editing using designer nucleases.Hematology Research and Reviews 02/2015; 6:69-85. DOI:10.2147/JBM.S46256