Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners' Oppositional Subscale
ABSTRACT Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) that may differentially predict outcome, we used latent class analysis of mother report on the Conners' Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S).
Data were obtained from mother report for Dutch twins (7 years old, n = 7,597; 10 years old, n = 6,548; and 12 years old, n = 5,717) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Samples partially overlapped at ages 7 and 10 years (19% overlapping) and at ages 10 and 12 years (30% overlapping), but not at ages 7 and 12 years. Oppositional defiant behavior was measured using the six-item Oppositional subscale of the CPRS-R:S. Multilevel LCA with robust standard error estimates was performed using the Latent Gold program to control for twin-twin dependence in the data. Class assignment across ages was determined and an estimate of heritability for each class was calculated. Comparisons with maternal report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores were examined using linear mixed models at each age, corrected for multiple comparisons.
The LCA identified an optimal solution of four classes across age groups. Class 1 was associated with no or low symptom endorsement (69-75% of the children); class 2 was characterized by defiance (11-12%); class 3 was characterized by irritability (9-11%); and class 4 was associated with elevated scores on all symptoms (5-8%). Odds ratios for twins being in the same class at each successive age point were higher within classes across ages than between classes. Heritability within the two "intermediate" classes was nearly as high as for the class with all symptoms, except for boys at age 12. Children in the Irritable class were more likely to have mood symptoms on the CBCL scales than children in the Defiant class but demonstrated similar scores on aggression and externalizing scales. Children in the All Symptoms class were higher in both internalizing and externalizing scales and subscales.
The LCA indicates four distinct latent classes of oppositional defiant behavior, in which the distinguishing feature between the two intermediate classes (classes 2 and 3) is the level of irritability and defiance. Implications for the longitudinal course of these symptoms, association with other disorders, and genetics are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has components of both irritability and defiance. It remains unclear whether children with variation in these domains have different adult outcomes. This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of classes of oppositional defiant behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on the oppositional defiant problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples, one in the US (the Achenbach Normative Sample, N = 2029) and one in the Netherlands (the Zuid-Holland Study, N = 2076). A third sample of American children (The Vermont Family Study, N = 399) was examined to determine concurrent validity with DSM diagnoses. Predictive validity over 14 years was assessed using the Zuid-Holland Study. Four classes of oppositional defiant problems were consistent in the two latent class analyses: No Symptoms, All Symptoms, Irritable, and Defiant. Individuals in the No Symptoms Class were rarely diagnosed concurrently with ODD or any future disorder. Individuals in the All Symptoms Class had an increased frequency of concurrent childhood diagnosis of ODD and of violence in adulthood. Subjects in the Irritable Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but increased odds of adult mood disorders. Individuals in the Defiant Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but had increased odds of violence as adults. Only children in the All Symptoms class were likely to have a concurrent diagnosis of ODD. Although not diagnosed with ODD, children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have adult mood disorders and children in the Defiant Class were more likely to engage in violent behavior.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 03/2014; 55(10). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12233 · 5.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The importance of irritability, as measured among the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), has dramatically come to the fore in recent years. New diagnostic categories rely on the distinct clinical utility of irritability, and models of psychopathology suggest it plays a key role in explaining developmental pathways within and between disorders into adulthood. However, only a few studies have tested multidimensional models of ODD, and the results have been conflicting. Further, consensus has not been reached regarding which symptoms best identify irritability. The present analyses use 5 large community data sets with 5 different measures of parent-reported ODD, comprising 16,280 youth in total, to help resolve these questions. Across the samples, ages ranged from 5 to 18, and included both boys and girls. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a modified bifactor model showed the best fit in each data set. The structure of the model included 2 correlated specific factors (irritability and oppositional behavior) in addition to a general ODD factor. In 4 models, the best fit was obtained using the items "being touchy," "angry," and "often losing temper" as indicators of irritability. Given the structure of the models and the generally high correlation between the specific dimensions, the results suggest that irritability may not be sufficiently distinct from oppositional behavior to support an entirely independent diagnosis. Rather, irritability may be better understood as a dimension of psychopathology that can be distinguished within ODD, and which may be related to particular forms of psychopathology apart from ODD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).Journal of Abnormal Psychology 10/2014; DOI:10.1037/a0037898 · 4.86 Impact Factor