Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners' Oppositional Subscale
ABSTRACT Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) that may differentially predict outcome, we used latent class analysis of mother report on the Conners' Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S).
Data were obtained from mother report for Dutch twins (7 years old, n = 7,597; 10 years old, n = 6,548; and 12 years old, n = 5,717) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Samples partially overlapped at ages 7 and 10 years (19% overlapping) and at ages 10 and 12 years (30% overlapping), but not at ages 7 and 12 years. Oppositional defiant behavior was measured using the six-item Oppositional subscale of the CPRS-R:S. Multilevel LCA with robust standard error estimates was performed using the Latent Gold program to control for twin-twin dependence in the data. Class assignment across ages was determined and an estimate of heritability for each class was calculated. Comparisons with maternal report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores were examined using linear mixed models at each age, corrected for multiple comparisons.
The LCA identified an optimal solution of four classes across age groups. Class 1 was associated with no or low symptom endorsement (69-75% of the children); class 2 was characterized by defiance (11-12%); class 3 was characterized by irritability (9-11%); and class 4 was associated with elevated scores on all symptoms (5-8%). Odds ratios for twins being in the same class at each successive age point were higher within classes across ages than between classes. Heritability within the two "intermediate" classes was nearly as high as for the class with all symptoms, except for boys at age 12. Children in the Irritable class were more likely to have mood symptoms on the CBCL scales than children in the Defiant class but demonstrated similar scores on aggression and externalizing scales. Children in the All Symptoms class were higher in both internalizing and externalizing scales and subscales.
The LCA indicates four distinct latent classes of oppositional defiant behavior, in which the distinguishing feature between the two intermediate classes (classes 2 and 3) is the level of irritability and defiance. Implications for the longitudinal course of these symptoms, association with other disorders, and genetics are discussed.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Further studies have attempted to identify discrete classes of children and adolescents according to their oppositional behavior profiles. Consistent with previous research [Kuny et al., 2013; Althoff et al., 2014], LCA in the present study revealed a low symptom endorsement type, an irritable type, and a severe type with elevated scores on all symptoms. In contrast to these previous findings, we additionally found a moderate oppositional type with intermediate scores on all symptoms, but not a specific defiant/vindictive type. "
ABSTRACT: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a frequent psychiatric disorder seen in children and adolescents with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ODD is also a common antecedent to both affective disorders and aggressive behaviors. Although the heritability of ODD has been estimated to be around 0.60, there has been little research into the molecular genetics of ODD. The present study examined the association of irritable and defiant/vindictive dimensions and categorical subtypes of ODD (based on latent class analyses) with previously described specific polymorphisms (DRD4 exon3 VNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and seven OXTR SNPs) as well as with dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin genes and pathways in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. In addition, we performed a multivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the aforementioned ODD dimensions and subtypes. Apart from adjusting the analyses for age and sex, we controlled for “parental ability to cope with disruptive behavior.” None of the hypothesis-driven analyses revealed a significant association with ODD dimensions and subtypes. Inadequate parenting behavior was significantly associated with all ODD dimensions and subtypes, most strongly with defiant/vindictive behaviors. In addition, the GWAS did not result in genome-wide significant findings but bioinformatics and literature analyses revealed that the proteins encoded by 28 of the 53 top-ranked genes functionally interact in a molecular landscape centered around Beta-catenin signaling and involved in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of ODD and inform future genetic studies of oppositional behavior.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32346 · 3.27 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has components of both irritability and defiance. It remains unclear whether children with variation in these domains have different adult outcomes. This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of classes of oppositional defiant behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on the oppositional defiant problems scale of the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples, one in the US (the Achenbach Normative Sample, N = 2029) and one in the Netherlands (the Zuid-Holland Study, N = 2076). A third sample of American children (The Vermont Family Study, N = 399) was examined to determine concurrent validity with DSM diagnoses. Predictive validity over 14 years was assessed using the Zuid-Holland Study. Four classes of oppositional defiant problems were consistent in the two latent class analyses: No Symptoms, All Symptoms, Irritable, and Defiant. Individuals in the No Symptoms Class were rarely diagnosed concurrently with ODD or any future disorder. Individuals in the All Symptoms Class had an increased frequency of concurrent childhood diagnosis of ODD and of violence in adulthood. Subjects in the Irritable Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but increased odds of adult mood disorders. Individuals in the Defiant Class had low concurrent diagnosis of ODD, but had increased odds of violence as adults. Only children in the All Symptoms class were likely to have a concurrent diagnosis of ODD. Although not diagnosed with ODD, children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have adult mood disorders and children in the Defiant Class were more likely to engage in violent behavior.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 03/2014; 55(10). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12233 · 5.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study identified clinical profiles of referred children based on the severity of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, emotional difficulties, and conduct problems. Parents of 166 children (132 males) aged 6-12 years referred to a hospital clinic because of disruptive behavior completed measures to assess these key indicators, and person-centered analysis was used to identify profiles. Four distinct profiles were identified that include: (1) Children low in severity on the three domains, (2) Children high in severity on the three domains, (3) Children high in severity in conduct problems and CU traits with minimal emotional difficulties, and (4) Children high in severity in conduct problems and emotional difficulties with minimal CU traits. Profiles differed in degree of aggression and behavioral impairment. Findings show that clinic-referred children with disruptive behaviors can be grouped based on these important indicators into profiles that have important implications for assessment and treatment selection.Child Psychiatry and Human Development 09/2014; 46(4). DOI:10.1007/s10578-014-0497-8 · 1.93 Impact Factor