The objectives of this research were to identify candidate sunn hemp accessions having high concentrations of cellulose for use as parents in breeding for cellulose and to determine variability for glucose content and some important agronomic traits among sunn hemp accessions. Since sunn hemp is an under-utilized species, glucose content and agronomic trait variation is essential for the identification of superior sunn hemp accessions for use as potential ethanol for biofuel. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied. "Sixteen sunn hemp accessions including the following plant introductions (expressed as glucose concentration) and stem dry weights were studied." In addition, to verify variability, these traits plus morphological, phenological, and seed reproductive traits were analyzed using multivariate and cluster analysis. The accessions, PI 250487, PI 337080, and PI 219717 produced the highest glucose concentrations (859, 809, and 770 mg g(-1) stem dry weight, respectively), however PI 468956 produced the highest stem dry weight (258 g). Branching significantly correlated with foliage (r(2) = 0.67**) and relative maturity (r(2) = 0.60*), while maturity had a significantly negative correlation with seed number (r(2) = -0.67**) and plant width (r(2) = -0.53*) as well. Seed number significantly correlated with plant width (r(2) = 0.57*). Average linkage cluster analysis grouped the 16 sunn hemp accessions into well-defined phenotypes with four distinct seed-producing groups and one outlier. Based on multivariate and cluster analysis, sufficient variation among these16 sunn hemp accessions exists to support the development of cellulosic ethanol producing cultivars with improved architecture, early maturity, seed yield, glucose concentrations, and stem dry weights.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ethanol industry in North America uses starch derived from corn as its primary feedstock. In order to better understand the geographical distribution of advanced ethanol production, potential sources of lignocellulosic biomass for the process are considered. It is shown that the corn-producing regions of North America already support significant amounts of ethanol production, and that few unexploited sources of corn remain for the industry to utilize. Accessing other sources of sugar, including other types of biomass such as lignocellulosic materials, will become necessary for the industry as it expands, quite apart from the need to meet government mandates. The ability of bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass is reviewed. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations is described, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues is described. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the ethanol industry to become a substantial contributor to the fuel and energy requirements of North America. It is estimated that ethanol production from residues could provide up to 13.7% of Canada’s 2009 transportation fuel demand, and up to 5.2% of the United States’ 2010 fuel demand. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the biofuel industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Development of a residue-based industry will help create the technologies needed to process energy crops as North America moves towards greater transportation fuel independence.
Biomass and Bioenergy 11/2011; 35(11). DOI:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.06.026 · 3.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A semimicro method is described for the determination of cellulose inmicrobial cultures, other biological materials, or pulp and paper products. Lignin, hemicellulose, and xylosans are extracted with acetic acid/nitric acid reagent, and the remaining cellulose is dissolved in 67% H2SO4 and determined by the anthrone reagent. The method gives quantitative recovery of purified cellulose from microbiological culture media, and also appears to be satisfactory for cellulose from paper pulp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A biochemical screening procedure was developed to identify mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana in which the polysaccharide composition of the cell wall was altered. Over 5000 ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized plants were analyzed by this method, leading to the identification of 38 mutant lines. One complementation group of mutants was completely deficient in l-fucose, a constituent of pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides. These mutant plants were dwarfed in growth habit, and their cell walls were considerably more fragile than normal.
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