Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a method of biliary tree decompression, applied as palliative treatment in patients with malignant biliary tree critical stenosis/obstruction, but also as a potentially curative treatment in patients with non-malignant biliary tree stenosis. Novel instrumentation dedicated to PTBD has been designed in recent years, which makes it possible to perform more advanced procedures in patients with severe extensive malignant biliary tree stenosis/obstruction.
The first primary goal of the study was to compare both the rate and types of short- and long-term complications in patients who had undergone PTBD between 2000 and 2006 with patients treated between 2007 and 2011. The second primary goal of the study was to work out an original algorithm of efficient management in patients undergoing PTBD. An additional goal was to assess the efficacy of PTBD and the overall survival of the patients.
One-hundred twenty-eight consecutive PTBD procedures performed between 2000 and 2006 in patients with malignant biliary jaundice were analyzed retrospectively. Similarly, retrospective analysis of 73 consecutive procedures in patients with malignant biliary jaundice performed between 2007 and 2011 was carried out. Subsequently, the results of both subsets were compared to each other. The PTBD procedure was guided fluoroscopy each time. PTBD involved external biliary drainage and/or stenting of the strictured/occluded segments of extra- and intrahepatic biliary ducts.
The analysis demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the overall incidence of short- and long-term complications in patients undergoing PTBD in 2007-2011 in comparison to the subset treated in 2000-2006. Among the early complications, a significant decrease in sub- and pericapsular contrasted bile leaks was shown. The evaluation of long-term complications demonstrated lower incidence of the falling out of the draining catheter. The implementation of novel instrumentation made it possible to perform biliary stenting in 63.7% cases of common bile duct (CBD) obstruction (vs. 37.5% in procedures carried out in 2000-2006). However, no statistically significant difference in survival between the two analyzed subsets was demonstrated.
The analysis of rate and types of complications made it possible to establish authors own algorithm of management in different types of biliary obstructions and strictures. The modification of procedure technique, pos-tinterventional management and usage of the new generation of low-profile instrumentation for percutaneous access dedicated to PTBD has resulted in a significant reduction of the complication rate in the last 5 years. Higher frequency of CBD stenting improves the quality of life in this subset of patients.
"PTBD with stent insertion is a well-established technique for treatment of malignant biliary obstructions (9). Identification and selective cannulation of the papillary orifice via the percutaneous transhepatic route is a relatively simple process even when biliary obstruction due to tumor infiltration occurs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with endoscopic sphincterotomy is a wellestablished procedure for the treatment of bile duct strictures. However, the procedure is difficult to perform in patients with intradiverticular papillae or tumor infiltration of the major papilla. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) is commonly used in the management of malignant biliary stricture. The current study reports two cases of PTBS performed to treat malignant obstructive jaundice caused by ampullary carcinoma complicated with intradiverticular papillae. PTBS is potentially a safe technique for this relatively rare condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proximal malignant obstructive jaundice remains one of the most challenging problems for hepato-biliary surgeons. Particularly when the findings preclude surgical resection at exploration, the next decision seems hard to make. A novel palliative treatment called "hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage" was designed for these proximal malignant obstructive jaundice patients. Hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage was performed with silicone tube whose diameter was determined according to the degree of dilated biliary ducts, and the proximal end of the tube was placed to intrahepatic ducts as far as possible, the distal end was placed across the duodenal papilla. Between February 2011 and August 2012, 23 patients with the proximal malignant obstructive jaundice of unresectable tumors at exploration received hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage. Patient's liver function results, symptoms, complications, and survival time were documented. The bilirubin levels of all 23 patients had a considerable and persistent decrease after operation and remained low or normal before death except for four cases of recurrent jaundice (two resulted from migration of tube and other two resulted from hepatocellular carcinoma extensively involving liver parenchyma). After effective drainage, clinical symptoms of cholangitis such as fever or pain were markedly relieved. No procedure-related bleeding, bile leakage, pancreatitis were observed. The median survival time was 212 days, half-year and 1-year survival rate were 56.5 and 21.7 %, respectively. Hepato-biliary-enteric stent drainage with less expense, less complications, and easy operation may be an ideal option for patients with unresectable malignancy in the hilar region at exploration.
Medical Oncology 03/2014; 31(3):853. DOI:10.1007/s12032-014-0853-3 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had been a treatment modality of choice for both benign and malignant biliary tract obstruction for more than half century, with a very high clinical success rate and low complications. But in certain circumstances, such as advanced and locally advanced pancreatobiliary malignancies (pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, ampullary tumor) and tight benign strictures, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) fails. Up to this point, the only alternative interventions for these conditions were percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventions was introduced for a couple decades with the better visualization and achievement of the pancreatobiliary tract. And it's still in the process of ongoing development. The inventions of new techniques and accessories lead to more feasibility of high-ended procedures. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary drainage was a novel treatment modality for the patient who failed ERCP with the less invasive technique comparing to surgical bypass. The technical and clinical success was high with acceptable complications. Regarded the ability to drain the biliary tract internally without an exploratory laparotomy, this treatment modality became a very interesting procedures for many endosonographers, worldwide, in a short period. We have reviewed the literature and suggest that endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage is also an option, and one with a high probability of success, for biliary drainage in the patients who failed conventional endoscopic drainage.
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