In this study, we investigated the incidence and etiology of pericarditis and myopericarditis of military members deployed to Iraq and Kuwait from 2004 through 2008. The importance of acute pericarditis and myopericarditis in the deployed military service member has resurfaced with the reintroduction of the smallpox vaccination by the U.S. Department of Defense in 2002. There are limited epidemiologic data on acute pericarditis and myopericarditis in the general population. As a primary evacuation node for cardiology patients between 2004 and 2008, the United States Military Hospital Kuwait cardiology clinic was uniquely situated to reliably extrapolate epidemiologic data for U.S. Armed Service Members serving in the Middle East. Between these years, approximately 721,600 service members served in Kuwait and Iraq. A total of 70 cases of pericarditis and 9 cases of myopericarditis were diagnosed. This yields an estimated incidence of 7.4 and 0.95 cases per 100,000 per year for pericarditis and myopericarditis, respectively. A total of eleven patients had received the smallpox vaccine 4 to 30 days before being diagnosed with pericarditis or myopericarditis. Four of the eleven patients (36.3%) had pericarditis, with a mean duration of 28.3 days since vaccination. Seven of these eleven (63.6%) patients had myopericarditis, with a mean duration of 13.7 days since smallpox vaccination. The incidence of pericarditis and myopericarditis was lower than previously reported incidence rates in the population. In all cases of myopericarditis and pericarditis, smallpox vaccination was preferentially related to myopericarditis versus pericarditis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The clinical profile with regard to sex and the influences on outcomes in patients who have been hospitalized for acute pericarditis is largely uncharacterized.
Methods and results:
We studied all patients aged ≥16 years admitted to the hospital because of acute pericarditis (postpericardiotomy and myocardial infarction associated pericarditis were excluded). Data were collected from a Finnish national registry that included data on all cardiovascular admissions (670 409) during 9.5 years in 29 hospitals nationwide. During the study period, there were 1361 admissions for acute pericarditis. Pericarditis patients were more likely to be male (64.9% of patients) than female (35.1%), with an age-adjusted likelihood ratio of 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-2.06; P<0.0001) for male sex. The standardized incidence rate of hospitalizations for acute pericarditis was 3.32 per 100 000 person-years. Men 16 to 65 years of age were at higher risk for pericarditis (relative risk, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.81-2.26; P<0.0001) than women in the general admitted population, with the highest risk difference among young adults. Acute pericarditis caused 0.20% (95% CI, 0.19%-0.22%) of all cardiovascular admissions. The proportion of pericarditis-caused admissions declined by an estimated 51% per 10-year increase in age. The in-hospital mortality rate for acute pericarditis was 1.1% (95% CI, 0.6%-1.8%). Mortality increased with age (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.78-5.95 per 10-year increase in age; P=0.0001) and severe coinfection (pneumonia or septicemia; hazard ratio, 13.46; 95% CI, 2.26-80.01; P<0.005) but was not associated with sex in multivariate analysis.
Patients hospitalized for acute pericarditis are more commonly male. Increasing age and severe coinfection are associated with greater in-hospital mortality in hospitalized acute pericarditis patients.
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