Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts are not formed on cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) in diabetes
ABSTRACT Recently, we reported an elevated level of glucose-generated carbonyl adducts on cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) in hearts of streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We also showed these adduct impaired RyR2 and SERCA2 activities, and altered evoked Ca(2+) transients. What is less clear is if lipid-derived malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) also chemically react with and impair RyR2 and SERCA2 activities in diabetes? This study used western blot assays with adduct-specific antibodies and confocal microscopy to assess levels of MDA, 4-HNE, N (ε)-carboxy(methyl)lysine (CML), pentosidine, and pyrraline adducts on RyR2 and SERCA2 and evoked intracellular transient Ca(2+) kinetics in myocytes from control, diabetic, and treated-diabetic rats. MDA and 4-HNE adducts were not detected on RyR2 and SERCA2 from either control or 8 weeks diabetic rats with altered evoked Ca(2+) transients. However, CML, pentosidine, and pyrraline adducts were elevated three- to five-fold (p < 0.05). Treating diabetic rats with pyridoxamine (a scavenger of reactive carbonyl species, RCS) or aminoguanidine (a mixed reactive oxygen species-RCS scavenger) reduced CML, pentosidine, and pyrraline adducts on RyR2 and SERCA2 and blunted SR Ca(2+) cycling changes. Treating diabetic rats with the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol had no impact on MDA and 4-HNE adducts on RyR2 and SERCA2, and on SR Ca(2+) cycling. From these data we conclude that lipid-derived MDA and 4-HNE adducts are not formed on RyR2 and SERCA2 in this model of diabetes, and are therefore unlikely to be directly contributing to the SR Ca(2+) dysregulation.
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ABSTRACT: Efficient and rhythmic cardiac contractions depend critically on the adequate and synchronized release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channels (RyR2) and its reuptake via sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a). It is well established that this orchestrated process becomes compromised in diabetes. What remain incompletely defined are the molecular mechanisms responsible for the dysregulation of RyR2 and SERCA2a in diabetes. Earlier, we found elevated levels of carbonyl adducts on RyR2 and SERCA2a isolated from hearts of type 1 diabetic rats and showed the presence of these posttranslational modifications compromised their functions. We also showed that these mono- and di-carbonyl reactive carbonyl species (RCS) do not indiscriminately react with all basic amino acid residues on RyR2 and SERCA2a; some residues are more susceptible to carbonylation (modification by RCS) than others. A key unresolved question in the field is which of the many RCS that are upregulated in the heart in diabetes chemically react with RyR2 and SERCA2a? This brief review introduces readers to the field of RCS and their roles in perturbing SR Ca(2+) cycling in diabetes. It also provides new experimental evidence that not all RCS that are upregulated in the heart in diabetes chemically react with RyR2 and SERCA2a, methylglyoxal and glyoxal preferentially do.Heart Failure Reviews 02/2013; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s10741-013-9384-9 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestive enzymes related to starch and lipid digestion. The findings revealed that the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats helped to protect the pancreas β-cells from death and damage. Additionally, the supplement of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats significantly decreased intestinal α-amylase and maltase by 36 and 52%, respectively, which led to a significant decrease in the blood glucose rate by 46%. Moreover, the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption such as lipase activity in the small intestine by 56%, which led to a notable decrease in serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) rates and an increase in the HDL cholesterol level. This treatment also improved glucose, maltase, starch, and lipid oral tolerance. Trigonelline was also observed to protect the liver-kidney functions efficiently, which was evidenced by the significant decrease in the serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and creatinine, albumin, and urea rates. The histological analysis of the pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues further established the positive effect of trigonelline. Overall, the findings presented in this study demonstrate that the administration of trigonelline to diabetic rats can make it a potentially strong candidate for industrial application as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and liver-kidney dysfunctions.Scientia Pharmaceutica 03/2013; 81(1):233-46. DOI:10.3797/scipharm.1211-14
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is quite diverse, including the improvement of insulin sensitivity by dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and the protection of β-cells islet. The aim of this study was to search the effect of trigonelline (Trig) on DPP-4, α-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities as well as β-cells architecture, and starch and glucose tolerance test. In surviving diabetic rats, the supplement of Trig potentially inhibited DPP-4 and α-glucosidase activities in both plasma and small intestine. The pancreas islet and less β-cells damage were observed after the administration of trig to diabetic rats. The increase of GLP-1 in surviving diabetic rats suppressed the increase of blood glucose level and improved results in the oral glucose and starch tolerance test. Trig also normalized key enzyme related to hypertension as ACE and improved the hemoglobin A1c and lipid profiles (plasma triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and total cholesterol), and liver indices toxicity. Therefore, these results revealed that Trig was successful in improving glycemic control, metabolic parameters, and liver function in diabetic rats. It is therefore suggested that Trig may be a potential agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 06/2013; 381. DOI:10.1007/s11010-013-1690-y · 2.39 Impact Factor