A contemporary analysis of the management of the mangled lower extremity
ABSTRACT The management of a mangled lower extremity is complex and requires consideration of a patient's injury pattern, medical history, social context, and preference. The Lower Extremity Assessment Project provides the highest level of evidence guiding management; however, the Lower Extremity Assessment Project cohort was recruited 15 years ago and was restricted to Level I trauma centers. Furthermore, as our ability to salvage limbs has improved, the decision to amputate in the early period following injury remains particularly challenging. Given these considerations, our primary objective was to characterize the contemporary management of the mangled lower extremity across a range of trauma centers and identify which patient and injury characteristics are associated with early amputation.
We used a retrospective cohort design and included adults in the National Trauma Databank (2007-2009) with a mangled lower extremity treated at Level I or II trauma centers. A mangle injury was defined as (1) a severe crush injury or (2) the combination of a severe fracture with selected severe injuries from at least two of three categories as follows: soft tissue, artery, or nerve. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of patient and injury characteristics with our primary outcome: amputation performed before the end of the first full calendar day following emergency department arrival (early amputation).
A total of 1,354 patients were identified from 222 centers; 278 (21%) underwent amputation during their hospital course, with 124 (9%) undergoing early amputation. On multivariable analysis, only injury characteristic was associated with early amputation. The presence of severe head injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3), shock in the emergency department (systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg), limb injury type, and higher-energy mechanism were independently associated with early amputation.
Nearly half of all in-hospital amputations for mangled lower extremities are performed early. The decision to amputate early may not be guided by age, comorbidity level, or insurance status but rather by systemic and local injury characteristics.
Therapeutic study, level IV; prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Disasters result in a substantial number of renal challenges, either by the creation of crush injury in victims trapped in collapsed buildings or by the destruction of existing dialysis facilities, leaving chronic dialysis patients without access to their dialysis units, medications, or medical care. Over the past two decades, lessons have been learned from the response to a number of major natural disasters that have impacted significantly on crush-related acute kidney injury and chronic dialysis patients. In this paper we review the pathophysiology and treatment of the crush syndrome, as summarized in recent clinical recommendations for the management of crush syndrome. The importance of early fluid resuscitation in preventing acute kidney injury is stressed, logistic difficulties in disaster conditions are described, and the need for an implementation of a renal disaster relief preparedness program is underlined. The role of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force in providing emergency disaster relief and the logistical support required is outlined. In addition, the importance of detailed education of chronic dialysis patients and renal unit staff in the advance planning for such disasters and the impact of displacement by disasters of chronic dialysis patients are discussed.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.392.Kidney International 10/2013; 85(5). DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.392 · 8.52 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mangled foot and ankle can be defined as a severe injury to multiple organ systems of this appendage that can include bone, muscle, tendon, and neurovascular structures. The magnitude and often rate-limiting parameter most likely to affect the decision to attempt foot salvage is the degree of soft tissue destruction. If irreplaceable or if function cannot be restored, amputation should be considered. If reconstruction is attempted, all nonviable tissues regardless of intrinsic function must first be removed by meticulous débridement.Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery 10/2014; 31(4). DOI:10.1016/j.cpm.2014.06.006 · 0.51 Impact Factor
Article: Penetrating Extremity Trauma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Penetrating extremity trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts.World Journal of Surgery 11/2014; 39(6). DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2865-8 · 2.35 Impact Factor