Isoflavone consumption and risk of breast cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies
ABSTRACT Epidemiologic studies that examine whether isoflavone consumption protects against breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. The controversy focuses on the effects of the menopausal status and exposure dose of isoflavone. We aim to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk by comprehensively assessing isoflavone exposure in the targeted populations. We searched PUBMED and EMBASE databases for case-control and cohort studies that assess the association between isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk. We extracted relative risks (RR) and odds ratios (OR) of different reported categories of isoflavone intake from each study. Fixed- or random-effects models were used to summarize dose-response data. Twenty-two studies were selected for the meta-analysis. Overall, the results showed that isoflavone reduced the breast cancer risk (a combined RR/OR of 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89) in Asian populations rather than Western populations (a combined RR/OR of 0.98, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.11) for the high-dose category. Further analysis showed that the intake of isoflavone in postmenopausal Asian women 0.46 (95% CI: 0.28-0.78) was better than premenopausal 0.63 (95% CI: 0.50-0.80) but similar in postmenopausal Western women 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.02) and premenopausal 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87-1.12). Exposure to high isoflavone may be associated with a reduced breast cancer risk in Asian populations, especially in postmenopausal women. However, no significant difference in the studies of Western populations may be due to the low intake of isoflavone levels.
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- "Although there is a strong interest in using more than one-hundred natural compounds  for cancer prevention, none of these dietary agents has been shown to consistently prevent breast cancer. Some of the most promising compounds include catechins (e.g., epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), green tea extract) , curcumin , luteolin , carotenoids , omega-3-fatty acids , resveratrol [112–114], soy isoflavones [115, 116], and vitamin D [117, 118]. For example, green tea intake has been associated with reduced incidence of breast cancer, and a recent phase IB dose-escalation trial using 400–800 mg EGCG among women with a history of stage I to III hormone receptor-negative breast cancer demonstrated that this natural compound is well tolerated  (Table 2). "
ABSTRACT: Preventing breast cancer is an effective strategy for reducing breast cancer deaths. The purpose of chemoprevention (also termed preventive therapy) is to reduce cancer incidence by use of natural, synthetic, or biological agents. The efficacy of tamoxifen, raloxifene, and exemestane as preventive therapy against estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer is well established for women at increased risk for breast cancer. However, because breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, distinct preventive approaches may be required for effective prevention of each subtype. Current research is, therefore, focused on identifying alternative mechanisms by which biologically active compounds can reduce the risk of all breast cancer subtypes including ER-negative breast cancer. Promising agents are currently being developed for prevention of HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and include inhibitors of the ErbB family receptors, COX-2 inhibitors, metformin, retinoids, statins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, and natural compounds. This review focuses on recent progress in research to develop more effective preventive agents, in particular for prevention of ER-negative breast cancer.Current Breast Cancer Reports 06/2014; 6(2):96-109. DOI:10.1007/s12609-014-0144-1
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ABSTRACT: Soy isoflavones are compounds found in soybean and soybean products. They have been reported to possess numerous physiological properties, such as antitumor, anti-menopausal (female) osteoporosis and anti-aging. They have also been reported to improve learning and memory skills in menopausal women and aid in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, diabetes and Kawasaki disease (KD). In this review, the effects of soy isoflavones on various diseases were analyzed. Based on the analysis, it was hypothesized that the function of soybean isoflavones in the prevention and treatment of various diseases results from their phytoestrogen and antioxidant properties. However, due to their phytoestrogen properties, it is recommended that the risks of soy isoflavone intake as food and/or medical treatment be further evaluated.09/2013; 1(5):697-701. DOI:10.3892/br.2013.129
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ABSTRACT: Food and beverages rich in polyphenols have been shown to reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases. The present study estimated polyphenol levels and consumption from food and beverages in Japanese women. Randomly recruited housewives living in the area around Tokyo (n 109; aged 21-56 years; Group 1) recorded all beverages and foods they ingested for 7 d, and the total polyphenol (TP) consumption was estimated based on the TP content of each item measured with a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. For Group 1, TP was consumed at 841 (sd 403) mg/d (range 113-1759 mg/d), and beverages were a larger source of TP (79 %) than food (21 %). The largest single source of TP was coffee at 47 %, followed by green tea, black tea, chocolate, beer and soya sauce, at 16, 5·7, 3·3, 3·2 and 3·1 %, respectively. In terms of food groups, cereals/noodles, vegetables, fruits, beans and seeds, and seasonings (except for soya sauce) contributed 5·0, 4·0, 1·4, 1·8 and 2·4 %, respectively. Another group of housewives who consumed at least one cup of coffee per d were separately recruited (n 100; Group 2) in the same area. Their consumption of TP was higher at 1187 (sd 371) mg/d (range 440-2435 mg/d) than Group 1 (P < 0·001), and the difference mostly came from the coffee consumption. We conclude that not food but beverages, especially coffee, may be the major contributor to TP consumption in Japanese women.01/2014; 3:e48. DOI:10.1017/jns.2014.19