Rationale and design of the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis (IMPI) trial: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized double-blind multicenter trial of adjunctive prednisolone and Mycobacterium w immunotherapy in tuberculous pericarditis.

The Cardiac Clinic, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: .
American heart journal (Impact Factor: 4.56). 02/2013; 165(2):109-115.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.08.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In spite of antituberculosis chemotherapy, tuberculous (TB) pericarditis causes death or disability in nearly half of those affected. Attenuation of the inflammatory response in TB pericarditis may improve outcome by reducing cardiac tamponade and pericardial constriction, but there is uncertainty as to whether adjunctive immunomodulation with corticosteroids and Mycobacterium w (M. w) can safely reduce mortality and morbidity.
The primary objective of the IMPI Trial is to assess the effectiveness and safety of prednisolone and M. w immunotherapy in reducing the composite outcome of death, constriction, or cardiac tamponade requiring pericardial drainage in 1,400 patients with TB pericardial effusion.
The IMPI trial is a multicenter international randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial study. Eligible patients are randomly assigned to receive oral prednisolone or placebo for 6 weeks and M. w injection or placebo for 3 months. Patients are followed up at weeks 2, 4, and 6 and months 3 and 6 during the intervention period and 6-monthly thereafter for up to 4 years. The primary outcome is the first occurrence of death, pericardial constriction, or cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis. The secondary outcome is safety of immunomodulatory treatment measured by effect on opportunistic infections (eg, herpes zoster) and malignancy (eg, Kaposi sarcoma) and impact on measures of immunosuppression and the incidence of immune reconstitution disease.
IMPI is the largest trial yet conducted comparing adjunctive immunotherapy in pericarditis. Its results will define the role of adjunctive corticosteroids and M. w immunotherapy in patients with TB pericardial effusion.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Tuberculous pericarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality even if antituberculosis therapy is administered. We evaluated the effects of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy and Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1400 adults with definite or probable tuberculous pericarditis to either prednisolone or placebo for 6 weeks and to either M. indicus pranii or placebo, administered in five injections over the course of 3 months. Two thirds of the participants had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. Results There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients who received prednisolone and those who received placebo (23.8% and 24.5%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.18; P=0.66) or between those who received M. indicus pranii immunotherapy and those who received placebo (25.0% and 24.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.29; P=0.81). Prednisolone therapy, as compared with placebo, was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of constrictive pericarditis (4.4% vs. 7.8%; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; P=0.009) and hospitalization (20.7% vs. 25.2%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.99; P=0.04). Both prednisolone and M. indicus pranii, each as compared with placebo, were associated with a significant increase in the incidence of cancer (1.8% vs. 0.6%; hazard ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.03; P=0.03, and 1.8% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.03 to 13.24; P=0.03, respectively), owing mainly to an increase in HIV-associated cancer. Conclusions In patients with tuberculous pericarditis, neither prednisolone nor M. indicus pranii had a significant effect on the composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; IMPI number, NCT00810849 .).
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