Clinical, biochemical, and molecular studies in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Antisense therapy as possible new therapeutic option

Center of Diagnosis of Molecular Diseases, Center of Molecular Biology UAM-CSIC, Center for Biomedical Network Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Institute for Health Research (IDIPAZ), Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Epilepsia (Impact Factor: 4.58). 01/2013; 54(2). DOI: 10.1111/epi.12083
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy seizure (PDE; OMIM 266100) is a disorder associated with severe seizures that can be controlled pharmacologically with pyridoxine. In the majority of patients with PDE, the disorder is caused by the deficient activity of the enzyme α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (antiquitin protein), which is encoded by the ALDH7A1 gene. The aim of this work was the clinical, biochemical, and genetic analysis of 12 unrelated patients, mostly from Spain, in an attempt to provide further valuable data regarding the wide clinical, biochemical, and genetic spectrum of the disease. METHODS: The disease was confirmed based on the presence of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (α-AASA) in urine measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and pipecolic acid (PA) in plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/MS/MS and by sequencing analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) and genomic DNA of ALDH7A1. KEY FINDINGS: Most of the patients had seizures in the neonatal period, but they responded to vitamin B6 administration. Three patients developed late-onset seizures, and most patients showed mild-to-moderate postnatal developmental delay. All patients had elevated PA and α-AASA levels, even those who had undergone pyridoxine treatment for several years. The clinical spectrum of our patients is not limited to seizures but many of them show associated neurologic dysfunctions such as muscle tone alterations, irritability, and psychomotor retardation. The mutational spectrum of the present patients included 12 mutations, five already reported (c.500A>G, c.919C>T, c.1429G>C c.1217_1218delAT, and c.1482-1G>T) and seven novel sequence changes (c.75C>T, c.319G>T, c.554_555delAA, c.757C>T, c.787 + 1G>T, c.1474T>C, c.1093-?_1620+?). Only one mutation, p.G477R (c.1429G>C), was recurrent; this was detected in four different alleles. Transcriptional profile analysis of one patient's lymphoblasts and ex vivo splicing analysis showed the silent nucleotide change c.75C>T to be a novel splicing mutation creating a new donor splice site inside exon 1. Antisense therapy of the aberrant mRNA splicing in a lymphoblast cell line harboring mutation c.75C>T was successful. SIGNIFICANCE: The present results broaden our knowledge of PDE, provide information regarding the genetic background of PDE in Spain, afford data of use when making molecular-based prenatal diagnosis, and provide a cellular proof-of concept for antisense therapy application.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) is caused by mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene encoding α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The classic clinical presentation is neonatal seizures responsive only to pyridoxine therapy. White matter abnormalities, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, megacisterna magna, cortical dysplasia, neuronal heterotopias, intracerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus in neuroimaging have been reported in patients with PDE. We report a new patient with asymmetric progressive ventriculomegaly noted on fetal sonography at 22 weeks' gestation. Postnatal brain sonography on day 1 and MRI on day 5 confirmed bilateral asymmetric ventriculomegaly caused by bilateral subependymal cysts. Intractable seizures at age 7 days initially responded to phenobarbital. Markedly elevated urinary α-aminoadipic acid semialdehyde levels and compound heterozygous mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene (c.446C>A/c.919C>T) confirmed the diagnosis of PDE caused by ALDH7A1 genetic defect. Despite the presence of structural brain malformations and subependymal cysts, PDE should always be included in the differential diagnosis of neonatal seizures that are refractory to treatment with antiepileptic drugs.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2014; 133(4). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-1230 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of antisense therapy for splicing defects in cellular models of metabolic diseases, suppressing the use of cryptic splice sites or pseudoexon insertions. To date, no animal models with these defects are available. Here, we propose exon skipping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) gene expressed in liver and kidney to generate systemic hyperphenylalaninemia in mice as a sensitive in vivo assay to test splice suppression. Systemic elevation of blood L-Phe can be quantified using tandem MS/MS. Exon 11 and/or 12 skipping for the normal PAH gene was validated in hepatoma cells for comparing two oligonucleotide chemistries, morpholinos and locked nucleic acids. Subsequently, Vivo-morpholinos (VMO) were tested in wild-type and in phenotypically normal Pah(enu2/+) heterozygous mice to target exon 11 and/or 12 of the murine Pah gene using different VMO dosing, mode of injection and treatment regimes. Consecutive intravenous injections of VMO resulted in transient hyperphenylalaninemia correlating with complete exon skipping and absence of PAH protein and enzyme activity. Sustained effect required repeated injection of VMOs. Our results provide not only a sensitive in vivo assay to test for splice-modulating antisense oligonucleotides, but also a simple method to generate murine models for genetic liver diseases.
    09/2014; 3(9):e193. DOI:10.1038/mtna.2014.44
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylmalonic aciduria cblB type is caused by mutations in the MMAB gene, which codes for the enzyme ATP: cobalamin adenosyltransferase (ATR). This study reports differences in the metabolic and disease outcomes of two pairs of siblings with methylmalonic aciduria cblB type, respectively harbouring the novel changes p.His183Leu/p.Arg190dup (P1 and P2) and the previously described mutations p.Ile96Thr/p.Ser174fs (P3 and P4). Expression analysis showed p.His183Leu and p.Arg190dup to be destabilising mutations. Both were associated with reduced ATR stability and a shorter half-life than wild-type ATR. Analysis of several parameters related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function showed an increase in ROS content, a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and changes in mitochondria morphology and structure in patient-derived fibroblasts compared to control cells. The impairment in energy production and the presence of oxidative stress and fission of the mitochondrial reticulum suggested mitochondrial dysfunction in cblB patients´ fibroblasts. The recovery of mitochondrial function should be a goal in efforts to improve the clinical outcome of methylmalonic aciduria cblB type.
    Clinical Genetics 05/2014; 87(6). DOI:10.1111/cge.12426 · 3.65 Impact Factor