Determination of underlying causes in asymptomatic, earlystage renal diseases by dipstick test

1Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Duzce University, Duzce, 2Department of Pediatric Nephrology, 3Department of Pediat- rics
Medicinski glasnik (Impact Factor: 0.2). 02/2013; 10(1):55-8.
Source: PubMed


To prevent possible chronic kidney diseases in healthy school- age children by screening for hematuria and proteinuria using a urine strip.

The incidence of hematuria and proteinuria was determined in 1848 healthy school-age children aged 7 to 14 years by urine screening in the eastern region of Turkey in 2008. Cases with persistent hematuria and/or proteinuria were referred to a pediatric nephrologist, and further examinations were carried out.

Isolated hematuria, isolated proteinuria, and combined hematuria-proteinuria were found in 92 (4.9%), 16 (0.8%) and 10 (0.5%) patients, respectively. In addition, 11.9% (11/92) of cases of isolated hematuria and 40% (4/10) of cases of combined hematuria- proteinuria were observed to have persisted. Persistent hematuria and persistent hematuria-proteinuria were found in 11 (0.5%) and 4 (0.2%) patients, respectively. In these cases, underlying causes were found: renal stone disease, hypercalciuria, urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux, atrophic kidney, and IgA nephropathy.

According to this study, cases with persistent hematuria should be examined especially in terms of renal stones, hypercalciuria, and urinary tract infection.

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    ABSTRACT: Results All subjects included 38 children and 117 adults, with mean age of 11.38±3.25 years for children and 35.17±8.44 years for adults. Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) was the most common pathology (55.3% of children and 49.6% of adults), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.4% of children and 32.5% of adults, mainly grade 2-3) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) without IgA deposition (13.2% of children and 12.8% of adults). Besides, Alport syndrome (2.6% of children) and membrane nephropathy (2.6% of children and 0.9% of adults) were demonstrated as other causes of PIH. Elevated mean arteral pressure or protein excretion rate, as well as episodic macrohematuria, indicated higher risk for MsPGN rather than TBMN. On the other hand, severity of microhematuria was irrelevant to pathological types of PIH. Totally, 86 patients were followed up and 37 cases therein stayed on track for long term (mean duration 41.11±28.92 months, range 8-113 months). Most cases had benign clinical course except 3 cases with TBMN, 5 cases with IgA nephropathy, 1 case with MsPGN (without IgA deposition), and 1 case with Alport syndrome, who developed hypertension or proteinuria. All of them were administered timely intervention.
    Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 09/2014; 29(3):148-155. DOI:10.1016/S1001-9294(14)60060-2

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