Article

Large-vessel correlates of cerebral small-vessel disease

Department of Neurology (M.B., F.P.), André Mignot Hospital, University of Versailles, St-Quentin-en-Yvelines
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 01/2013; 80(7). DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318281ccc2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the relationship of carotid structure and function with MRI markers of cerebral ischemic small-vessel disease. METHODS: The study comprised 1,800 participants (aged 72.5 ± 4.1 years, 59.4% women) from the 3C-Dijon Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study, who had undergone quantitative brain MRI and carotid ultrasound. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: Presence of carotid plaque and increasing carotid lumen diameter (but not common carotid artery intima-media thickness) were associated with higher prevalence of lacunar infarcts: odds ratio (OR) = 1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.35), p = 0.02 and OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.02-1.50), p = 0.03 (by SD increase). Carotid plaque was also associated with large white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) (age-specific top quartile of WMHV distribution): OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 1.04-1.67), p = 0.02, independently of vascular risk factors. Increasing Young elastic modulus and higher circumferential wall stress, reflecting augmented carotid stiffness, were associated with increasing WMHV (effect estimate [β] ± standard error: 0.0003 ± 0.0001, p = 0.024; β ± standard error: 0.005 ± 0.002, p = 0.008). Large WMHV was also associated with increasing Young elastic modulus (OR = 1.22 [95% CI: 1.04-1.42], p = 0.01) and with decreasing distensibility coefficient (OR = 0.83 [95% CI: 0.69-0.99], p = 0.04), independently of vascular risk factors. Associations of carotid lumen diameter with lacunar infarcts and of carotid stiffness markers with WMHV were independent of carotid plaque. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to and independently of carotid plaque, increasing carotid lumen diameter and markers of carotid stiffness were associated with increasing prevalence of lacunar infarcts and increasing WMHV, respectively.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Bernard Mazoyer, May 26, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
127 Views
  • Source
    • "To our knowledge, there is only one study that has already reported increased carotid arterial stiffness in a relatively old population of ILA patients (Brisset et al. 2013). Because age is an important risk factor for arterial stiffness as well as for ILA (Benetos et al. 2002; Lee and Oh 2010; Pantoni 2010) it would be wise to study younger patients and compare them to a control group without ILA matched with respect to risk factors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of ischemic leukoaraiosis (ILA) is unknown. It was recently found that ILA patients have increased aortic stiffness. Carotid stiffness is a more specific parameter and could have value as a non-invasive diagnostic value for ILA. Therefore, using color-coded duplex sonography, we compared local carotid stiffness parameters of 59 patients with ILA with those of 45 well-matched controls. The diagnosis of ILA was based on exclusion of other causes of white matter changes seen on magnetic resonance imaging. Pulse wave velocity β (PWVβ, m/s), pressure–strain elasticity modulus (Ep, kPa), β index and augmentation index (Aix, %) values were higher and arterial compliance (AC, mm2/kPa) values were lower in the ILA group; however, only Ep and PWVβ reached statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05). β, Ep and PWVβ exhibited an increasing trend with higher Fazekas score, though only Ep reached significance (p = 0.05). The main conclusion was that Ep and PWVβ could have a diagnostic role in patients with ILA.
    Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 10/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.08.002 · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leukoaraiosis is associated with an increased risk of stroke, but the underlying mechanism remains uncertain, as do the associations with other risk factors, such as carotid disease. We aimed to determine the role of carotid disease and of other clinical variables in the development of leukoaraiosis and to define their contributions to the associated increased risk of stroke. We prospectively studied a large cohort of consecutive patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke who attended a TIA clinic between 2002 and 2009. Detailed clinical data were obtained, and patients underwent magnetic resonance brain and vascular imaging. We assessed the severity of leukoaraiosis with use of the ARWMC (Age Related White Matter Changes) score: 671 patients (374 [56%] men; mean [SD] age 71 [11] years) were studied, of whom 415 (62%) had leukoaraiosis. In a multivariate analysis, leukoaraiosis was associated with increasing age (P<0.0001) and hypertension (P=0.01), as well as the presence of acute (P<0.0001) and chronic (P=0.014) infarction on magnetic resonance imaging. In the univariate analysis, a current and past diagnosis of stroke versus TIA also showed a strong association. Carotid disease was not associated with leukoaraiosis, even in the presence of a flow-limiting (>70%) stenosis or occlusion, and the risk factor profiles for leukoaraiosis and carotid disease differed. The association with more severe ischemic events (stroke versus TIA) and infarction on imaging is consistent with leukoaraiosis being a marker of increased cerebral susceptibility to ischemia. In contrast, the presence, severity of, and risk factors for atheromatous disease showed no association with leukoaraiosis, suggesting that these are two unrelated disease processes.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 07/2013; 2(4):e000261. DOI:10.1161/JAHA.113.000261 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The difference of inflammatory response between the pathogenesis of cerebral large- and small vessel disease after stroke remains unclear. In present study, we aim to determine the association of circulating inflammatory markers with different stroke subtype. Methods: 99 patients with non-cardioembolic stroke were divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small-artery occlusion (SAO) according to TOAST classification. A panel of plasma inflammatory markers including leukocyte, lymphocyte, CRP, fibrinogen, D-dimer, CD40L, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and TNF-α were measured within 72 hours following cerebral ischemia. The relation of their levels in plasma with stroke subtype was further studied. All statistical data analysis was performed by SPSS 17.0 software. Results: We found that only CRP were closely associated with stroke subtype (p<0.05). Compared to SAO subgroup, the plasma levels of CRP was higher in LAA subgroup (p<0.05). The predictive efficiency of CRP more than 3.2 for LAA was 85.7% sensitivity. The influencing factor of CRP includes IL-6, lymphocyte, fibrinogen and D-dimer. Conclusion: LAA had a stronger activation of inflammation than SAO in the pathogenesis, which was associated with the changes of CRP.
    International journal of medical sciences 08/2013; 10(10):1399-405. DOI:10.7150/ijms.6652 · 1.55 Impact Factor
Show more