Acute Cholecystitis: Do Sonographic Findings and WBC Count Predict Gangrenous Changes?
Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S Kingshighway Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63110. American Journal of Roentgenology
(Impact Factor: 2.73).
02/2013; 200(2):363-9. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.12.8956
The purpose of our study was to determine, first, if gallbladder wall striations in patients with sonographic findings suspicious for acute cholecystitis are associated with gangrenous changes and certain histologic features; and, second, if WBC count or other sonographic findings are associated with gangrenous cholecystitis.
Sixty-eight patients who underwent cholecystectomies within 48 hours of sonography comprised the study group. Sonograms and reports were reviewed for wall thickness, striations, Murphy sign, pericholecystic fluid, wall irregularity, intraluminal membranes, and luminal short-axis diameter. Medical records were reviewed for WBC count and pathology reports for the diagnosis. Histologic specimens were reviewed for pathologic changes. Statistical analyses tested for associations between nongangrenous and gangrenous cholecystitis and sonographic findings and for associations between wall striations and histologic features.
Ten patients had gangrenous cholecystitis and 57, nongangrenous cholecystitis. One had cholesterolosis. Thirty patients had wall striations: 60% had gangrenous and 42% nongangrenous cholecystitis. There was no association with the pathology diagnosis (p = 0.32). There was no association between any histologic feature and wall striations (p ≥ 0.19). A Murphy sign was reported in 70% of patients with gangrenous cholecystitis and in 82% with nongangrenous cholecystitis; there was no association with the pathology diagnosis (p = 0.39). Wall thickness and WBC count were greater in patients with gangrenous cholecystitis than in those with nongangrenous cholecystitis (p ≤ 0.04).
Gallbladder wall thickening and increased WBC counts were associated with gangrenous cholecystitis; however, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. Wall striations and a negative Murphy sign were not associated with gangrenous cholecystitis.
Available from: Aysenur Deger
- "Transabdominal ultrasonography may be help to measure gallbladder thickness since a gallbladder wall thickness >3 mm is considered as a diagnostic characteristic of acute cholecystitis. Some other clinical conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis in the early phase of the disease  . However, incidental or rare lesions such as true gallbladder polyps and even cancer was reported as might be misdiagnosed with ultrasonography . "
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Cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures. Postoperative investigation of cholecystectomy specimen has a great value since histopathological reports may document some entities with significant clinical consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cholesterolosis and the reports indicating some histopathological alterations in symptomatic cholecystitis.
This paper is based on a retrospective study. Histopathological reports of 432 cholecystectomy specimens between January 2011 and June 2013 were reviewed. Three reports were excluded due to perioperative diagnosis of cancer. Reports of 429 cholecystectomy specimens of the acute and symptomatic chronic cholecystitis patients were analyzed. Standardization of the reporting was questioned. Age, gender, histopathological wall thickness of gallbladder, reporting rates of acute inflammation, cholesterolosis, polypoid lesions, epithelial hyperplasia, gastric or intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and incidental cancer were investigated and compared between patients with and without cholesterolosis. Reported rates of histopathological findings were comparable between patients under and over 60 years old and patients with and without reported cholesterolosis.
Reported histopathological findings were presented as acute inflammation in 46 (10.7%), cholesterolosis in 79 (18.4%), gallbladder polypoid lesions in 7 (1.6%), epithelial hyperplasia in 16 (3.7%), metaplasia of any type in 34 (7.9%) of 429 patients. Dysplasia was excluded whereas one incidental gallbladder carcinoma was reported. Epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia were found to be related to age. Gallbladder wall thickness was decreased with cholesterolosis. However, only a correlation between cholesterolosis and gender or metaplasia was noted.
Recent study suggests that cholesterolosis is somehow associated with metaplasia. Thus, surgeons should carefully interpret the histopathology reports based on unusual or exceptional findings corresponding to the cholecystectomy specimens. Any abnormal finding in the reports should be investigated in terms of the progress of the pathology and also its clinical consequences.
International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 09/2014; 12(11). DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.08.402 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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Ultrasonography has a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for diagnosing cholecystitis in adults. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and PPV of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pediatric cholecystitis.
We performed a single-institution retrospective review of the records of all patients undergoing cholecystectomy with a preoperative ultrasound during 2005-2010. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and PPV using pathologic findings as the standard for the diagnosis of cholecystitis.
In the 223 included patients, the median (interquartile range) age was 14 y (11-16 y); and 64% were female. Preoperative symptoms of abdominal pain were reported in 98% of patients. A diagnosis of cholecystitis was reported in 10% (23 of 223) of ultrasound readings. Pathologic diagnosis of cholecystitis was present in 80% (179 of 223) of cholecystectomy specimens, with 8% (15 of 179) having acute cholecystitis, 83% (148 of 179) chronic cholecystitis, and 9% (16 of 179) both. Sensitivity of ultrasound findings ranged from 6% for Murphy's sign to 66% for cholelithiasis. Positive predictive values ranged from 67% for Murphy's sign to 87% for gallbladder sludge. Presence of any one ultrasound sign had a sensitivity of 82% and PPV of 80%.
Ultrasound findings in pediatric cholecystitis have lower sensitivities and PPVs than reported in adults. These differences may be explained by the higher prevalence of chronic cholecystitis in children, which suggests that children may have milder episodes of self-limited gallbladder inflammation compared with adults, which may lead to a delay in treatment.
Journal of Surgical Research 04/2013; 184(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.03.066 · 1.94 Impact Factor
American Journal of Roentgenology 01/2014; 202(1):W1-W12. DOI:10.2214/AJR.12.10386 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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