Job Satisfaction of Program Directors in Radiology: A Survey of Current Program Directors
ABSTRACT Informal conversations and anecdotal evidence suggest that the job turnover rate among radiology residency program directors is disproportionately high. The purpose of our study was to assess the characteristics of current program directors and determine factors that may be affecting overall job satisfaction and job turnover rate.
A survey that combined facet-specific measurements and global assessment was sent to current program directors in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved diagnostic radiology programs. An optional free response section was included. Results were collected over 4 weeks.
Most of the program directors responded. The mean tenure of current program directors was 6.9 ± 6.7 years (range, 0.5-30 years). Fifty-three percent rated global job satisfaction high, and 6% reported low satisfaction. Sixty-four percent of the respondents were not considering resignation, compared with 13% who were definitely resigning. Program directors in larger programs reported a higher level of satisfaction. Positive interactions with residents and feeling valued by colleagues increased job satisfaction. The greatest source of dissatisfaction from all respondents seemed to be ACGME regulations, which were considered excessive and to change too frequently. The changing format of the board examination and structure of a residency were not the major factors in determining job satisfaction.
The job satisfaction rate among current program directors is high, likely owing to feelings of fulfillment in working with residents and feeling valued by colleagues. The major source of dissatisfaction appears to stem from ACGME oversight, which is perceived as excessive and having requirements that change too frequently.
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ABSTRACT: To develop a job-satisfaction measure that encompasses the multifaceted job of internal medicine residency program directors. Questions were devised to measure program directors satisfaction with various facets of their jobs. In 1996, the authors surveyed all non-military internal medicine program directors in the United States. Of the program directors surveyed, 301 (78%) responded. More respondents than non-respondents held the title of department chairperson in addition to the title of program director (22% vs 7%). Factor analysis and correlation analysis yielded a multifaceted measure (termed PD-Sat) composed of 20 questions and six facets (work with residents, colleague relationships, resources, patient care, pay, and promotion) that made sense based on literature review and discussions with program directors (face validity). The PD-Sat had good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .88), as had each of its six facets (Cronbach's alphas = .60-.90). The six facets correlated modestly with one another (Pearson's r2 = .12-.67), suggesting they were measuring different aspects of a common concept. The PD-Sat correlated significantly with an established four-question global job-satisfaction scale used in previous studies (Pearson's r2 = .33) demonstrating concurrent validity. Scores on the PD-Sat predicted whether program directors were considering, seeking, or making a job change (predictive validity). The PD-Sat performed comparably well in subsets of program directors who were and were not department chairs, suggesting that it might be applicable to different populations of program directors. The authors have developed a new facet-specific job-satisfaction measure that is reliable and valid for assessing the job satisfaction of internal medicine program directors. Because job descriptions for program directors in other specialties are similar, it may also be useful in these populations.Academic Medicine 04/1999; 74(3):263-70. DOI:10.1097/00001888-199903000-00017 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Consultant radiologists appear to be at greater risk of burnout than consultants working in other specialties. The aim of this study was to examine sources of stress and satisfaction at work for radiologists and hospital consultants in other specialties in order to try to understand this difference. A postal questionnaire survey of psychiatric morbidity (12-item General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and sources of job stress and satisfaction (study-specific questionnaires) was carried out among a random sample of 882 hospital consultants working in radiology and three other specialties (surgery, gastroenterology and oncology). The most stressful aspect of work for radiologists was work overload. Inadequacies in current staffing and facilities and concerns about funding were also major sources of stress, as were impositions made on radiologists by other clinicians. The most important sources of satisfaction for radiologists were their relationships with patients and being perceived to do their job well by colleagues. Importantly, radiologists reported less satisfaction than the other specialists from many of the aspects of work measured. A greater proportion of radiologists than other specialists felt insufficiently trained in communication skills [80% (n = 168) vs 47% (n = 310);P < 0.001] and management skills [84% (n = 179) vs 76% (n = 506);P < 0.05]. These data highlight aspects of radiologists' work which need to be tackled in order to reduce their stress and increase their satisfaction, and thereby their risk of burnout.Clinical Radiology 03/2000; 55(3):182-5; discussion 186. DOI:10.1053/crad.1999.0379 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 1983, 43% of internal medicine residency program directors had held their positions for less than three years. The purposes of this study were to determine the job turnover rate for internal medicine program directors, and the characteristics of program directors and residency programs that are associated with job turnover. In October 1996, questionnaires were sent to all non-military internal medicine residency program directors in the continental United States listed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The questionnaire covered demographics, program characteristics, and job satisfaction. In October 1999, an updated ACGME list was used to contact programs to verify changes in program directors and determine the dates of change. A total of 262 usable responses were received. At the beginning of the study, 49% of the respondents had been on the job for three years or less, and 74 (29%) were no longer program directors three years later. Overall job satisfaction was highly associated (p <.01) with turnover. Multivariate Cox regression modeling yielded four variables independently associated with turnover: low satisfaction with colleague relationships (hazard ratio = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.6-6.4), a high percentage of administrative work time (HR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4-6.2), perceiving the job as a "stepping stone" (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2), and having had formal training to deal with problem residents (HR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-1.1). Respondents with burnout, with the titles of program director and chair or department chief, and with less than two years on the job had nonsignificant trends toward job turnover. Variables not associated with turnover included gender, rank, salary, and program size. Yearly turnover for internal medicine residency program directors is substantial. The four independent predictors of turnover identified in this study should be of interest to institutions recruiting or retaining program directors and to aspiring program directors.Academic Medicine 12/2001; 76(11):1127-35. DOI:10.1097/00001888-200111000-00017 · 3.47 Impact Factor