Pathogenic mechanisms in HBV- and HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly lethal cancer, with increasing worldwide incidence, that is mainly associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. There are few effective treatments partly because the cell- and molecular-based mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of this tumour type are poorly understood. This Review outlines pathogenic mechanisms that seem to be common to both viruses and which suggest innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of HCC.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mark A Feitelson, May 09, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Xiangchun Li
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ABSTRACT: The complex regulation of tumor suppressive gene and its pseudogenes play key roles in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). However, the roles played by pseudogenes in the pathogenesis of HCC are still incompletely elucidated. This study identifies the putative tumor suppressor INTS6 and its pseudogene INTS6P1 in HCC through the whole genome microarray expression. Furthermore, the functional studies - include growth curves, cell death, migration assays and in vivo studies - verify the tumor suppressive roles of INTS6 and INTS6P1 in HCC. Finally, the mechanistic experiments indicate that INTS6 and INTS6P1 are reciprocally regulated through competition for oncomiR-17-5p. Taken together, these findings demonstrate INTS6P1 and INTS6 exert the tumor suppressive roles through competing for oncomiR-17-5p. Our investigation of this regulatory circuit reveals novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis.Oncotarget 01/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most frequent human malignancies and a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It is characterized by late detection and fast progression, and it is believed that epigenetic disruption may be one of the molecular mechanisms leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. Previous studies from our group revealed that HCC tumors exhibit specific DNA methylation signatures associated with major risk factors and tumor progression. Imprinted genes are mono-allelically expressed in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner and have been suggested to be more susceptible to deregulation in cancer. To test this notion, we performed a targeted analysis of DNA methylation in known imprinted genes, using HCC samples and in vitro models of carcinogenic exposure. Analysis of HCC DNA methylation in two independent datasets showed that differentially methylated loci are significantly enriched in imprinted genes. Most of the promoters of imprinted genes were found hypomethylated in HCC tumors compared to surrounding tissues, contrasting with the frequent promoter hypermethylation observed in tumors. We next investigated the status of methylation of the imprinting control region (ICR) of different imprinted clusters and found that the 15q11-13 ICR was significantly hypomethylated in tumors relative to their surrounding tissues. In addition, expression of imprinted genes within this cluster was frequently deregulated in a gene-specific manner, suggesting distinct mechanisms of regulation in this region. Finally, primary human hepatocytes and hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells displayed higher methylation variability in certain imprinted loci after natural hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and after lipid accumulation, respectively. The methylation status of a large panel of imprinted genes was found deregulated in HCC, suggesting a major role of this mechanism during hepatocarcinogenesis. In vitro models support the hypothesis of imprinted gene methylation as a potential marker of environmental exposures.Clinical Epigenetics 12/2015; 7(1):15. DOI:10.1186/s13148-015-0053-9 · 6.22 Impact Factor