To evaluate the prognostic value of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) protein expression in patients with advanced-stage, high-grade serous ovarian cancer, delineate the functional role of FGFR4 in ovarian cancer progression, and evaluate the feasibility of targeting FGFR4 in serous ovarian cancer treatment.
Immunolocalization of FGFR4 was conducted on 183 ovarian tumor samples. The collected FGFR4 expression data were correlated with overall survival using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The effects of FGFR4 silencing on ovarian cancer cell growth, survival, invasiveness, apoptosis, and FGF1-mediated signaling pathway activation were evaluated by transfecting cells with FGFR4-specific siRNAs. An orthotopic mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of injection of FGFR4-specific siRNAs and FGFR4 trap protein encapsulated in nanoliposomes on ovarian tumor growth in vivo.
Overexpression of FGFR4 protein was significantly associated with decreased overall survival durations. FGFR4 silencing significantly decreased the proliferation, survival, and invasiveness and increased apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Also, downregulation of FGFR4 significantly abrogated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and WNT signaling pathways, which are activated by FGF1. Targeting FGFR4 with the FGFR4-specific siRNAs and FGFR4 trap protein significantly decreased ovarian tumor growth in vivo.
FGFR4 is a prognostic marker for advanced-stage, high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Silencing FGFR4 and inhibiting ligand-receptor binding significantly decrease ovarian tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that targeting ovarian cancer cells with high levels of FGFR4 protein expression is a new therapeutic modality for this disease and will improve survival of it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFR) support cell proliferation, survival and migration during embryonic development, organogenesis and tissue maintenance and their deregulation is frequently observed in cancer development and progression. Consequently, increasing efforts are focusing on the development of strategies to target FGF/FGFR signaling for cancer therapy. Among the FGFRs the family member FGFR4 is least well understood and differs from FGFRs1-3 in several aspects. Importantly, FGFR4 deletion does not lead to an embryonic lethal phenotype suggesting the possibility that its inhibition in cancer therapy might not cause grave adverse effects. In addition, the FGFR4 kinase domain differs sufficiently from those of FGFRs1-3 to permit development of highly specific inhibitors. The oncogenic impact of FGFR4, however, is not undisputed, as the FGFR4-mediated hormonal effects of several FGF ligands may also constitute a tissue-protective tumor suppressor activity especially in the liver. Therefore it is the purpose of this review to summarize all relevant aspects of FGFR4 physiology and pathophysiology and discuss the options of targeting this receptor for cancer therapy.
Current pharmaceutical design 08/2013; 20(17). DOI:10.2174/13816128113199990594 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-throughput genomic technologies have identified biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. Comprehensive functional validation studies of the biological and clinical implications of these biomarkers are needed to advance them toward clinical use. Amplification of chromosomal region 5q31-5q35.3 has been used to predict poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. In this study, we further dissected this large amplicon and identified the overexpression of FGF18 as an independent predictive marker for poor clinical outcome in this patient population. Using cell culture and xenograft models, we show that FGF18 signaling promoted tumor progression by modulating the ovarian tumor aggressiveness and microenvironment. FGF18 controlled migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells through NF-κB activation, which increased the production of oncogenic cytokines and chemokines. This resulted in a tumor microenvironment characterized by enhanced angiogenesis and augmented tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and M2 polarization. Tumors from ovarian cancer patients had increased FGF18 expression levels with microvessel density and M2 macrophage infiltration, confirming our in vitro results. These findings demonstrate that FGF18 is important for a subset of ovarian cancers and may serve as a therapeutic target.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2013; 123(10). DOI:10.1172/JCI70625 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is an oncogene overexpressed in multiple types of human cancers including ovarian cancer (OC). However, the underlying mechanism of AEG-1 up-regulation in OC is not well understood. In this study, we showed that miR-137 downregulated AEG-1 expression through interaction with its 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) and that miR-137 expression was inversely correlated with AEG-1 levels in OC specimens. Similar to the downregulation of AEG-1, overexpression of miR-137 in OC cell lines decreased in vitro cell growth, clonogenicity, and also induced G1 arrest. Importantly, miR-137 overexpression suppressed in vivo tumor growth in nude mice models. Furthermore, we found that restoring the AEG-1 (without the 3'UTR) significantly rescued miR-137-induced cell growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest. Taken together, these findings indicate that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibition of AEG-1. These molecules might be targets for prevention or treatment of OC.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2013; 441(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.10.052 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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