Hemorrhagic Ulcers after Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Features of Post-Disaster Hemorrhagic Ulcers
ABSTRACT Background: We investigated the characteristic features and treatment of hemorrhagic peptic ulcers after the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on 11 March 2011. Methods: Clinical data of patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcers were retrospectively collected during the 3 months after the earthquake from seven major hospitals in the middle of the stricken area, and were compared with those during the same period of the previous year. Results: After the earthquake, the number of hemorrhagic ulcers increased 2.2 fold as compared with the previous year, and gastric ulcers were significantly more frequent compared with duodenal ulcers (p <0.05) and more often presented multiple forms (p <0.05). Nonetheless, the proportion of re-bleeding cases after hemostasis treatment (8% in 2010 vs. 5% in 2011) or total mortality rate (2.5% in 2010 vs. 1.2% in 2011) was rather lower after the earthquake compared with that of the previous year. Conclusion: We clarified that post-disaster hemorrhagic ulcers existed frequently in the stomach, often as multiple ulcers at the same time. The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami caused many cases of hemorrhagic ulcer. However, because of the high success rate of endoscopic hemostasis, the mortality remained as low as in the previous year. Our present study provides important information for large-scale disasters which can occur anywhere.
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ABSTRACT: We have reported that the total number of peptic ulcers (PUs) had increased 1.5-fold after the Great East Japan Earthquake compared with those of the previous year, and that hemorrhagic ulcers were more prominently increased by 2.2-fold. The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for bleeding ulcers after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Clinical data of all peptic ulcer subjects endoscopically detected at the 7 major hospitals in the middle of the stricken area during the 3 months after the earthquake were retrospectively collected. Based on endoscopic and laboratory findings, peptic ulcer cases were divided into 227 bleeding ulcer cases and 102 non-bleeding controls. Other than ordinary risk factors for bleeding ulcers, the refugee shelter was included in the analysis as a unique confounder after the earthquake. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. Eighty-seven (27 %) of 329 PUs emerged from refuge shelters, and the majority (76 of 87) of PUs occurring in such shelters was the bleeding type. Multivariate regression showed that residence in a shelter was a strong risk factor for ulcer bleeding with OR (95 % CI): 4.4 (2.1-9.6, p < 0.0001), independent of the progressiveness of ulcer diseases. Accommodation in a refugee shelter can be a strong risk factor for ulcer bleeding after a large-scale disaster. Since acid-suppressive drugs are supposed to decrease the risk for stress-induced ulcer bleeding, our results will encourage effective use of a limited medical resource in such catastrophic events.Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; 50(1). DOI:10.1007/s00535-014-0940-4 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the stomach, the bacteria infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use had been considered to be the 2 main causes of peptic ulcers. However, there have been recent reports of an increase in the proportion of peptic ulcers without these known risk factors; these are termed idiopathic peptic ulcers. Such trend was firstly indicated in 1990s from some reports in North America. In Asia, numerous studies reported that idiopathic ulcers accounted for a small percentage of all ulcers in the 1990s, but in the 2000s, multiple studies reported that the proportion of idiopathic ulcers had reached 10%-30%, indicating that the incidence of idiopathic ulcers in Asia has also been rising in recent years. While a decline in H. pylori infection rates of general population in Asia is seen as the main reason for the increased incidence of idiopathic ulcers, it is also possible that the absolute number of idiopathic ulcer cases has increased. Advanced age, serious systemic complication, and psychological stress are considered to be the potential risk factors for idiopathic ulcers. Management of idiopathic ulcers is challenging, at present, because there is no effective preventative measure against recurrence in contrast with cases of H. pylori-positive ulcers and NSAIDs-induced ulcers. As it is expected that H. pylori infection rates in Asia will decline further in the future, measures to treat idiopathic ulcers will also likely become more important.World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2014; 20(3):706-713. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i3.706 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Great East Japan earthquake, subsequent tsunamis and the Fukushima nuclear incident had a tremendous impact on Japanese society. Although small-scale surveys have been conducted in highly affected areas, few have elucidated the disaster's effect on health from national perspective, which is necessary to prepare national policy and response. The aim of the present study was to describe prefecture-level health status and investigate associations with number of aftershocks, seismic intensity, a closer geographical location to the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, or higher reported radiation dose in each prefecture even after adjusting for individual socioeconomic factors, by utilizing individual-level data acquired from a national cross-sectional Internet survey as well as officially reported prefecture-level data. A Japanese government research institute obtained 12,000 participants by quota sampling and 7335 participants were eligible for the analysis in an age range between 17 and 27 years old. We calculated the percentage of people with decreased subjective health in each prefecture after the earthquake. Variability introduced by a small sample size for some prefectures was smoothed using empirical Bayes estimation with a random-intercept logistic model, with and without demographic factors. Multilevel logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for change of subjective health associated with prefecture-level and individual-level factors. Adjusted empirical Bayes estimates were higher for respondents commuting in the northeast region (Iwate 14%, Miyagi 19%, and Fukushima 28%), which faces the Pacific Ocean, while the values for Akita (10%) and Yamagata (8%) prefectures, which do not face the Pacific Ocean, were lower than those of Tokyo (12%). The values from the central to the western region were clearly lower. The number of aftershocks was coherently associated with decreased health (OR 1.05 per 100 times, 95% CI 1.04-1.06; P<.001) even after adjusting for covariates (OR 1.02 per 100 times, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; 1.32 per 1000 times, 95% CI 1.03-1.71; P=.049). In contrast, seismic intensity of the initial earthquake (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.65-1.17; P=.36), radiation dose (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.82-1.64; P=.41), and distance from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.00; P=.66) were not. Change in job condition (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.72-2.45; P<.001), female (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.69; P<.001), higher age (OR 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.02-1.11; P=.005), and duration of evacuation longer than 4 weeks (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.97; P=.02) seemed to decrease perceived health status. We found nationwide differences that show decreased health status because of the Great East Japan disaster according to prefecture. The number of aftershocks, change in work conditions, being female, a higher age, and duration of the evacuation were risk factors for the population after the major earthquake, tsunamis, and nuclear incident.01/2013; 2(2):e31. DOI:10.2196/ijmr.2585