Essential role of Cenexin1, but not Odf2, in ciliogenesis.
ABSTRACT Primary cilia are microtubule-based solitary sensing structures on the cell surface that play crucial roles in cell signaling and development. Abnormal ciliary function leads to various human genetic disorders, collectively known as ciliopathies. Outer dense fiber protein 2 (Odf2) was initially isolated as a major component of sperm-tail fibers. Subsequent studies have demonstrated the existence of many splicing variants of Odf2, including Cenexin1 (Odf2 isoform 9), which bears an unusual C-terminal extension. Strikingly, Odf2 localizes along the axoneme of primary cilia, whereas Cenexin1 localizes to basal bodies in cultured mammalian cells. Whether Odf2 and Cenexin1 contribute to primary cilia assembly by carrying out either concerted or distinct functions is unknown. By taking advantage of odf2 (-/-) cells lacking endogenous Odf2 and Cenexin1, but exogenously expressing one or both of these proteins, we showed that Cenexin1, but not Odf2, was necessary and sufficient to induce ciliogenesis. Furthermore, the Cenexin1-dependent primary cilia assembly pathway appeared to function independently of Odf2. Consistently, Cenexin1, but not Odf2, interacted with GTP-loaded Rab8a, localized to the distal/subdistal appendages of basal bodies, and facilitated the recruitment of Chibby, a centriolar component that is important for proper ciliogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that Cenexin1 plays a critical role in ciliogenesis through its C-terminal extension that confers a unique ability to mediate primary cilia assembly. The presence of multiple splicing variants hints that the function of Odf2 is diversified in such a way that each variant has a distinct role in the complex cellular and developmental processes.
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ABSTRACT: Cilia are hair-like protrusions found at the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They can be divided into two types, motile and non-motile. Motile cilia are found in a restricted number of cell types, are generally present in large numbers, and beat in a coordinated fashion to generate fluid flow or locomotion. Non-motile or primary cilia, on the other hand, are detected in many different cell types, appear once per cell, and primarily function to transmit signals from the extracellular milieu to the cell nucleus. Defects in cilia formation, function, or maintenance are known to cause a bewildering set of human diseases, or ciliopathies, typified by retinal degeneration, renal failure and cystic kidneys, obesity, liver dysfunction, and neurological disorders. A common denominator between motile and primary cilia is their structural similarity, as both types of cilia are composed of an axoneme, the ciliary backbone that is made up of microtubules emanating from a mother centriole/basal body anchored to the cell membrane, surrounded by a ciliary membrane continuous with the plasma membrane. This structural similarity is indicative of a universal mechanism of cilia assembly involving a common set of molecular players and a sophisticated, highly regulated series of molecular events. In this review, we will mainly focus on recent advances in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cilia assembly, with special attention paid to the centriolar protein, CP110, its interacting partner Cep290, and the various downstream molecular players and events leading to intraflagellar transport (IFT), a process that mediates the bidirectional movement of protein cargos along the axoneme and that is essential for cilia formation and maintenance.Cilia. 01/2013; 2(1):9.
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ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling and ciliogenesis are core features of embryonic development in a range of metazoans. Chibby (Cby), a basal-body associated protein, regulates β-catenin-mediated Wnt signaling in the mouse but not Drosophila. Here we present an analysis of Cby's embryonic expression and morphant phenotypes in Xenopus laevis. Cby RNA is supplied maternally, negatively regulated by Snail2 but not Twist1, preferentially expressed in the neuroectoderm, and regulates β-catenin-mediated gene expression. Reducing Cby levels reduced the density of multiciliated cells, the number of basal bodies per multiciliated cell, and the numbers of neural tube primary cilia; it also led to abnormal development of the neural crest, central nervous system, and pronephros, all defects that were rescued by a Cby-GFP chimera. Reduction of Cby led to an increase in Wnt8a and decreases in Gli2, Gli3, and Shh RNA levels. Many, but not all, morphant phenotypes were significantly reversed by the Wnt inhibitor SFRP2. These observations extend our understanding of Cby's role in mediating the network of interactions between ciliogenesis, signaling systems and tissue patterning.Developmental Biology 09/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary cilium originates from the mother centriole and participates in critical functions during organogenesis. Defects in cilia biogenesis or function lead to pleiotropic phenotypes. Mutations in centrosome-cilia gene CC2D2A result in Meckel and Joubert syndromes. Here we generate a Cc2d2a(-/-) mouse that recapitulates features of Meckel syndrome including embryonic lethality and multiorgan defects. Cilia are absent in Cc2d2a(-/-) embryonic node and other somatic tissues; disruption of cilia-dependent Shh signalling appears to underlie exencephaly in mutant embryos. The Cc2d2a(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lack cilia, although mother centrioles and pericentriolar proteins are detected. Odf2, associated with subdistal appendages, is absent and ninein is reduced in mutant MEFs. In Cc2d2a(-/-) MEFs, subdistal appendages are lacking or abnormal by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with this, CC2D2A localizes to subdistal appendages by immuno-EM in wild-type cells. We conclude that CC2D2A is essential for the assembly of subdistal appendages, which anchor cytoplasmic microtubules and prime the mother centriole for axoneme biogenesis.Nature Communications 06/2014; 5:4207. · 10.74 Impact Factor