Neuroticism, extraversion, and motor function in community-dwelling older persons.
ABSTRACT Personality traits are associated with adverse health outcomes in old age, but their association with motor function is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that neuroticism and extraversion are associated with motor decline in older persons.
Prospective, observational cohort study.
Retirement communities across metropolitan Chicago.
Nine hundred eighty-three older persons without dementia.
At baseline, neuroticism and extraversion were assessed and annual assessment of 18 motor measures were summarized in a composite measure.
Average follow-up was 5 years. Separate linear mixed-effects models controlling for age, sex, and education showed that baseline levels of neuroticism and extraversion were associated with the rate of motor decline. For each 7-point (∼1 SD) higher neuroticism score at baseline, the average annual rate of motor decline was more than 20% faster. This amount of motor decline was associated with a 10% increased risk of death compared to a participant with an average neuroticism score. Each 6-point (∼1 SD) lower extraversion score at baseline was associated with an 8% faster rate of motor decline. This amount of motor decline was associated with about a 9% increased risk of death compared to a participant with an average extraversion score. Neuroticism and extraversion were relatively independently associated with motor decline. These associations were unchanged when controlling for depressive symptoms and current health status but were partially attenuated when controlling for late-life cognitive and social activities.
Higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion are associated with more rapid motor decline in old age.
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ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with reductions in brain glucose metabolism in some cortical and subcortical regions, but the rate of decrease varies significantly between individuals, likely reflecting genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that the variant of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene (VNTR in exon 3), which has been associated with novelty seeking and sensitivity to environmental stimuli (negative and positive) including the beneficial effects of physical activity on longevity, influence the effects of aging on the human brain. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and [(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)FDG) to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) under baseline conditions (no stimulation) in 82 healthy individuals (age range 22-55 years). We determined their DRD4 genotype and found an interaction with age: individuals who did not carry the 7-repeat allele (7R-, n = 53) had a significant (p<0.0001) negative association between age and relative glucose metabolism (normalized to whole brain glucose metabolism) in frontal (r = -0.52), temporal (r = -0.51) and striatal regions (r = -0.47, p<0.001); such that older individuals had lower metabolism than younger ones. In contrast, for carriers of the 7R allele (7R+ n = 29), these correlations with age were not significant and they only showed a positive association with cerebellar glucose metabolism (r = +0.55; p = 0.002). Regression slopes of regional brain glucose metabolism with age differed significantly between the 7R+ and 7R- groups in cerebellum, inferior temporal cortex and striatum. These results provide evidence that the DRD4 genotype might modulate the associations between regional brain glucose metabolism and age and that the carriers of the 7R allele appear to be less sensitive to the effects of age on brain glucose metabolism.PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63492. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063492 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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