Pneumococcal vaccination in adults - Background of the current discussion

Universitätszentrum für Infektionsmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene, Universitätsklinikum Jena.
DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (Impact Factor: 0.54). 02/2013; 138(5):185-7. DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1327411
Source: PubMed
Download full-text


Available from: Mathias Pletz, Oct 09, 2015
122 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A trial with a 7-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine in children with recurrent acute otitis media showed a shift in pneumococcal colonisation towards non-vaccine serotypes and an increase in Staphylococcus aureus-related acute otitis media after vaccination. We investigated prevalence and determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and S aureus in 3198 healthy children aged 1-19 years. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S pneumoniae was detected in 598 (19%) children, and was affected by age (peak incidence at 3 years) and day-care attendance (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.18). S aureus carriage was affected by age (peak incidence at 10 years) and male sex (OR 1.46, 1.25-1.70). Serotyping showed 42% vaccine type pneumococci. We noted a negative correlation for co-colonisation of S aureus and vaccine-type pneumococci (OR 0.68, 0.48-0.94), but not for S aureus and non-vaccine serotypes. These findings suggest a natural competition between colonisation with vaccine-type pneumococci and S aureus, which might explain the increase in S aureus-related otitis media after vaccination.
    The Lancet 07/2004; 363(9424):1871-2. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16357-5 · 45.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease. Two doses of vaccine were given 4 weeks apart. The primary end point was a further episode of pneumococcal infection caused by vaccine serotypes or serotype 6A. From February 2003 through October 2007, we followed 496 patients (of whom 44% were male and 88% were HIV-seropositive) for 798 person-years of observation. There were 67 episodes of pneumococcal disease in 52 patients, all in the HIV-infected subgroup. In 24 patients, there were 19 episodes that were caused by vaccine serotypes and 5 episodes that were caused by the 6A serotype. Of these episodes, 5 occurred in the vaccine group and 19 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30 to 90). There were 73 deaths from any cause in the vaccine group and 63 in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the vaccine group, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.66). The number of serious adverse events within 14 days after vaccination was significantly lower in the vaccine group than in the placebo group (3 vs. 17, P=0.002), and the number of minor adverse events was significantly higher in the vaccine group (41 vs. 13, P=0.003). The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protected HIV-infected adults from recurrent pneumococcal infection caused by vaccine serotypes or serotype 6A. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN54494731.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/2010; 362(9):812-22. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0903029 · 55.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High functional antibody responses, establishment of immunologic memory, and unambiguous efficacy in infants suggest that an initial dose of conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnC) vaccine may be of value in a comprehensive adult immunization strategy. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of 7-valent PnC vaccine (7vPnC) with that of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in adults >/=70 years of age who had not been previously vaccinated with a pneumococcal vaccine. One year later, 7vPnC recipients received a booster dose of either 7vPnC (the 7vPnC/7vPnC group) or PPV (the 7vPnC/PPV group), and PPV recipients received a booster dose of 7vPnC (the PPV/7vPnC group). Immune responses were compared for each of the 7 serotypes common to both vaccines. Antipolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic assay titers to the initial dose of 7vPnC were significantly greater than those to the initial dose of PPV for 6 and 5 of 7 serotypes, respectively (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). 7vPnC/7vPnC induced antibody responses that were similar to those after the first 7vPnC inoculation, and 7vPnC/PPV induced antibody responses that were similar to or greater than antibody responses after administration of PPV alone; PPV/7vPnC induced significantly lower antibacterial responses, compared with those induced by 7vPnC alone, for all serotypes (P < .05). In adults, an initial dose of 7vPnC is likely to elicit higher and potentially more effective levels of antipneumococcal antibodies than is PPV. In contrast with PPV, for which the induction of hyporesponsiveness was observed when used as a priming dose, 7vPnC elicits an immunological state that permits subsequent administration of 7vPnC or PPV to maintain functional antipolysaccharide antibody levels.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2008; 46(7):1015-23. DOI:10.1086/529142 · 8.89 Impact Factor
Show more