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Available from: JENNIFER EMELDA, Aug 31, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia. Over 600,000 persons of all ages residing in Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand were included in the surveillance. Shigella was isolated from 2,927 (5%) of 56,958 diarrhoea episodes detected between 2000 and 2004. The overall incidence of treated shigellosis was 2.1 episodes per 1,000 residents per year in all ages and 13.2/1,000/y in children under 60 months old. Shigellosis incidence increased after age 40 years. S. flexneri was the most frequently isolated Shigella species (1,976/2,927 [68%]) in all sites except in Thailand, where S. sonnei was most frequently detected (124/146 [85%]). S. flexneri serotypes were highly heterogeneous in their distribution from site to site, and even from year to year. PCR detected ipaH, the gene encoding invasion plasmid antigen H in 33% of a sample of culture-negative stool specimens. The majority of S. flexneri isolates in each site were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri isolates were identified in China (18/305 [6%]), Pakistan (8/242 [3%]), and Vietnam (5/282 [2%]). Shigella appears to be more ubiquitous in Asian impoverished populations than previously thought, and antibiotic-resistant strains of different species and serotypes have emerged. Focusing on prevention of shigellosis could exert an immediate benefit first by substantially reducing the overall diarrhoea burden in the region and second by preventing the spread of panresistant Shigella strains. The heterogeneous distribution of Shigella species and serotypes suggest that multivalent or cross-protective Shigella vaccines will be needed to prevent shigellosis in Asia.
    PLoS Medicine 10/2006; 3(9):e353. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030353 · 14.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi drug resistant Shigellae pose a major threat in control of shigellosis with. Shigella dysenteriae being the most prevalent species at our centre before 1994. A gradual decrease in S. dysenteriae occurred over the years with a corresponding increase in S. flexneri which became the predominant serotype. From May to November 2003, an increase in number of patients admitted with clinical diagnosis of dysentery was noted in comparison to previous years, with a corresponding increase in the isolation of multi drug resistant S. dysenteriae. We report here the re-emergence of multi drug resistant S. dysenteriae at our tertiary care centre in north India after a gap of about 10 yr. Plasmid analysis of S. dysenteriae was also performed to study the origin and clonality of the isolates. Stool samples were collected in Cary-Blair medium and processed by standard methods. Shigellae were confirmed by serotyping. Minimum inhibitory concentration was done by agar dilution method and E-test. Plasmid profiling of 18 isolates (16 S. dysenteriae 1 and 2 S. dysenteriae 2) was performed by modified alkali lysis method. Clinical details of patients were noted. A total of 64 patients with dysentery were admitted during the study period. Patients presented with unusually severe symptoms and six developed complications. Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin occurred in six patients who received cefotaxime and amikacin. There were 38 children below 5 yr of age. S. dysenteriae (18 isolates of S. dysenteriae 1 and 2 isolates of S. dysenteriae 2) were isolated from 20 of the 64 (31.2%) stool samples. S. dysenteriae re-emerged as the commonest isolate after a gap of nearly 10 yr. Fourteen of the 20 S. dysenteriae isolates were multi drug resistant; 12 were resistant to ciprofloxacin with MIC of 8-32 mug/ml. Plasmid profile analysis revealed that 6 of 11 ciprofloxacin resistant S. dysenteriae 1 had similar profiles. Emergence of a clone of ciprofloxacin resistant S. dysenteriae 1 in north India is disturbing as treatment options in our geographic area are limited in view of already existing high drug resistance to nalidixic acid, co-trimoxazole and amoxycillin. A close monitoring of shifts in serogroup distribution and antibiotic resistance is required to guide clinicians for treatment of shigellosis.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 10/2005; 122(4):348-54. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shigella species represent one of the growing numbers of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in developing countries. Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Shigella flexneri type 2a emerged in India during 2002 and 2003, respectively. Sixty strains of Shigella from different parts of India were analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of the qnr plasmid, mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), fluoroquinolone accumulation, and the presence of other genes encoding resistance to various antimicrobials. Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains had mutations in gyrA and parC genes and had an active efflux system. They were also resistant to several other antimicrobials but were susceptible to azithromycin and ceftriaxone. The majority of the strains harboured genes encoding resistance to ampicillin (97 %), tetracycline (95 %), streptomycin (95 %) and chloramphenicol (94 %). PFGE analysis revealed clonality among strains of S. dysenteriae types 1 and 5, S. flexneri type 2a and Shigella boydii type 12.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 08/2008; 57(Pt 7):856-63. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.2008/000521-0 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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