Sustainability has become an important topic and concept in relation to tourism planning and development. For sustainable tourism development to be successful stakeholders must be involved in the process. The questions that should be considered though are: (1) who should be considered stakeholders in tourism development, and (2) how should planners and developers involve stakeholders in the development of tourism? In order to provide answers to these questions this paper investigated sustainable tourism development and how stakeholder inclusion and involvement are incorporated in the basic concept of sustainable tourism development. This investigation was accomplished by reviewing and drawing conclusions from the literature. The discussion includes thoughts from both management and public participation perspectives. So who should be involved in the sustainable tourism development process? Based on the definitions that are used for sustainability and sustainable tourism four distinct groups are identified; the present visitors, future visitors, present host community, and future host community.
"This dynamism centered on empowerment is evident within the tourism literature as well, but the term empowerment has been often embedded in the broader literature on public participation, community well-being, and resident attitudes toward tourism (Buzinde, Kalavar, & Melubo, 2014; Byrd, 2007; Byrd, Cárdenas, & Greenwood, 2008). Examples of empowerment within the public participation literature include Byrd et al. (2008, p. 201) emphasis that " stakeholder involvement is a critical part of sustainable tourism development " and that " for sustainable tourism to be successful, stakeholders must be involved in the process " (Byrd, 2007). Byrd is not alone with this call for broad stakeholder inclusion in the tourism planning process. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the empirical research on resident empowerment in its infancy, this study sought to add to the scant literature by testing the cross-cultural validity of the Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale (RETS) within the town of Oizumi, Japan. Such a destination was chosen because it provided a culture vastly different from the original rural Virginia, U.S. sample across Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) performed on the Oizumi sample (n = 456) demonstrated that the RETS and its factors of psychological, social, and political empowerment were construct valid and shared the same psychometric properties originally found in Boley and McGehee's study (2014). These findings from the Oizumi, Japan sample support the international applicability of the RETS and provide managers with a valid tool for tracking the effectiveness of their marketing and management efforts aimed at increasing resident empowerment.
"The history of the development of communication between tourism and heritage management stakeholder groups in a destination about tourism development will be telling in terms of how healthy such partnerships are in terms of managing heritage attractions sustainably (du Cros and McKercher, 2014). Therefore, the first step towards sustainable tourism development for a destination is the identification of stakeholders (Byrd, 2007) and then gaining an understanding of their concerns in tourism planning and development. All the identified stakeholders should be invited to take part in the planning process, before the theory can be applied effectively. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose – Drawing upon an analysis of resident and visitor survey data and Macau Government Tourist Office (MGTO) press releases in 2012, the purpose of this paper is to understand the tourism destination image for this tourist historic city produced by these three key stakeholder groups in Macau. Design/methodology/approach – This is achieved using a new stakeholder analysis tool, developed from previous studies, which compares the perspective of the MGTO, the city's destination marketing organization, with that of its residents and visitors. This study examines the perceptions that residents and visitors have about the general images projected and generated in Macau. Findings – This research highlights the multiplicity of images and producers of images in Macau. Originality/value – The lesson from this case study is that public sector agencies need to acknowledge more clearly the tourism planning role of the host community in particular. The possibility of detecting disconnections and misalignments of shared destination imagery by residents and visitors has implications for the public sector in Macau and other destinations in relation to managing and developing a destination and contributes to a greater understanding of stakeholders and sustainable tourism development overall.
"The essence of cooperation and partnerships among tourism destination communities to sustainable planning and development of tourism destinations has been emphasized in previous studies (Bramwell and Lane, 2000; Byrd, 2007). Pansiri (2013) state that tourism organizations should be encouraged to design and implement tourism marketing plans to enhance collaboration and partnerships. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hotels are required to pay high commission fees when cooperating with online travel agencies (OTAs) to manage online marketing channels. Thus, to maximize their revenues, hotels protect their income through their own (traditional) marketing channels and save on considerable commissions by optimizing room availability for their cooperative OTAs. The present paper proposes a method to manage such availability in the context of a hotel cooperating with an OTA on room booking service. Customers can make reservations directly through the distribution channel of the hotel or indirectly through the OTA, if applicable, during the selling period. The hotel then forecasts room demand base on distribution information after receiving enough room bookings and optimizes room availability with respect to its maximum revenue by determining whether on-hand rooms are available for the OTA. Results indicate when hotel rooms become unavailable for the cooperative OTA. Numerical studies reveal that this method is conducive to the improvement of hotel revenue.
International Journal of Hospitality Management 09/2015; 50:145-152. DOI:10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.07.005 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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