Stakeholders in sustainable tourism and their role: applying stakeholder theory to sustainable development

Tourism Review 04/2007; 62(2):6-13. DOI: 10.1108/16605370780000309

ABSTRACT Sustainability has become an important topic and concept in relation to tourism planning and development. For sustainable tourism development to be successful stakeholders must be involved in the process. The questions that should be considered though are: (1) who should be considered stakeholders in tourism development, and (2) how should planners and developers involve stakeholders in the development of tourism? In order to provide answers to these questions this paper investigated sustainable tourism development and how stakeholder inclusion and involvement are incorporated in the basic concept of sustainable tourism development. This investigation was accomplished by reviewing and drawing conclusions from the literature. The discussion includes thoughts from both management and public participation perspectives. So who should be involved in the sustainable tourism development process? Based on the definitions that are used for sustainability and sustainable tourism four distinct groups are identified; the present visitors, future visitors, present host community, and future host community.

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    • "This dynamism centered on empowerment is evident within the tourism literature as well, but the term empowerment has been often embedded in the broader literature on public participation, community well-being, and resident attitudes toward tourism (Buzinde, Kalavar, & Melubo, 2014; Byrd, 2007; Byrd, Cárdenas, & Greenwood, 2008). Examples of empowerment within the public participation literature include Byrd et al. (2008, p. 201) emphasis that " stakeholder involvement is a critical part of sustainable tourism development " and that " for sustainable tourism to be successful, stakeholders must be involved in the process " (Byrd, 2007). Byrd is not alone with this call for broad stakeholder inclusion in the tourism planning process. "
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    ABSTRACT: With the empirical research on resident empowerment in its infancy, this study sought to add to the scant literature by testing the cross-cultural validity of the Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale (RETS) within the town of Oizumi, Japan. Such a destination was chosen because it provided a culture vastly different from the original rural Virginia, U.S. sample across Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) performed on the Oizumi sample (n = 456) demonstrated that the RETS and its factors of psychological, social, and political empowerment were construct valid and shared the same psychometric properties originally found in Boley and McGehee's study (2014). These findings from the Oizumi, Japan sample support the international applicability of the RETS and provide managers with a valid tool for tracking the effectiveness of their marketing and management efforts aimed at increasing resident empowerment.
    Tourism Management 10/2015; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2015.01.011 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "Appropriate tools and techniques need to be designed and implemented depending on the strategy and targeted levels of participation. Several techniques have been used or recommended for engaging stakeholders in tourism planning: " Surveys, scenarios, gaming techniques, nominal group technique " (Simmons, 1994, p. 100), " stakeholder-wide visioning sessions " (Mair & Reid, 2007, p. 419), " advisory boards " (Choi & Sirakaya, 2006, p. 1281) " public hearings, focus groups, public deliberation, citizen review panels, civic review boards, work groups, implementation studies and written comments " (Byrd, 2007, p. 8). Only a few of these methods, such as joint policy boards; parallel groups of citizens and power holders; and independent neighbourhood corporations, are appropriate for encouraging higher levels of participation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Community participation has long been viewed as an important tenet of tourism planning, and there is general consensus among researchers that engaging all stakeholder groups contributes to tourism sustainability. However, there are gaps in the literature, and challenges in practice, that call for further research. Among these are the dynamics of heterogeneous community groups and that not all community subgroups have equal opportunity to participate in tourism planning. This paper attempts to advance community participation by drawing on progressive approaches to stakeholder theory in the management field and by exploring, for the first time, the engagement of immigrants in tourism planning as fringe stakeholders, representative of present and future community dynamics. Bringing first generation immigrants as an important but less studied segment within the broader host community into focus moves tourism planning toward a more inclusive approach to community engagement, reflecting increased diversity and change in host communities.
    Journal of Sustainable Tourism 08/2015; 23(7):1049–1062. DOI:10.1080/09669582.2015.1042481 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "We explored these relationships to identify the perspective of young local residents who are important stakeholders in Lenggong's future development. Several studies have eluded to the influence of resident perceptions on community involvement and subsequent participation in the pursuit of different objectives, such as tourism development, economic development, and conservation programmes (Byrd, 2007; Gunn, 1994; Jamal & Getz, 1995; Nicholas et al. 2009). In this study, we divided the perceptions of young residents into positive and negative perceptions, because previous studies had alluded to significant differences between the opinions of young residents with positive perceptions and negative perceptions regarding their involvement with tourism development and conservation programs (Bett, 2005; Gursoy et al., 2002; Haralambopoulos & Pizam, 1996; L atkov a & Vogt, 2012; Ritchie, 1988). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the relationships between the perception of young local residents regarding tourism development and conservation efforts, their involvement in promoting and supporting Lenggong Valley as a World Heritage Site (WHS), and their sense of belonging. This paper also asks if the involvement of young residents in activities to support the WHS acts as a mediator of their perceptions and their sense of belonging. A questionnaire survey was administered to all Y4 and Y5 students from three secondary schools in Lenggong Valley. A total of 175 completed questionnaires were returned. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was applied to the resultant data using SmartPLS 2.0 software. The results revealed that having positive perceptions had a positive effect on young residents' involvement in promoting and supporting the Lenggong WHS. A positive relationship between young residents' negative perceptions and their sense of belonging was also found. These findings indicate that involvement plays a mediating role in the relationship between residents' positive perceptions and their sense of belonging. The findings contribute to our understanding of the importance of youth perceptions in pursuing sustainable tourism development and in planning WHS conservation programmes. Our findings might also be relevant to Lenggong's local authorities wanting to increase the involvement of local residents, in particular youth, in supporting and promoting the status of the WHS and in enhancing their sense of belonging.
    Tourism Management 06/2015; 48:154-163. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2014.10.018 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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