Sputum Microbiota in Tuberculosis as Revealed by 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing
ABSTRACT Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat in the 21st century. Traditional studies of the disease are focused on the single pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Recent studies have revealed associations of some diseases with an imbalance in the microbial community. Characterization of the TB microbiota could allow a better understanding of the disease.
Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, the sputum microbiota in TB infection was examined by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. A total of 829,873 high-quality sequencing reads were generated from 22 TB and 14 control sputum samples. Firmicutes , Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Actinobacteria , and Fusobacteria were the five major bacterial phyla
recovered, which together composed over 98% of the microbial community. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were more represented in the TB samples and Firmicutes was more predominant in the controls. Sixteen major bacterial genera were recovered. Streptococcus , Neisseria and Prevotella were the most predominant genera, which were dominated by several operational taxonomic units grouped at a 97% similarity level. Actinomyces , Fusobacterium , Leptotrichia , Prevotella , Streptococcus , and Veillonella were found in all TB samples, possibly representing the core genera in TB sputum microbiota. The less represented genera Mogibacterium , Moryella and Oribacterium were enriched statistically in the TB samples, while a genus belonging to the unclassified Lactobacillales was enriched in the controls. The diversity of microbiota was similar in the TB and control samples.
Conclusions/Significance: The composition and diversity of sputum microbiota in TB infection was characterized for the first time by using high-throughput pyrosequencing. It lays the framework for examination of potential roles played by the diverse microbiota in TB pathogenesis and progression, and could ultimately facilitate advances in TB treatment.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Man Kit Cheung, Aug 13, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Advancements in next generation sequencing technology have provided means for the comprehensive profiling of the microbial community in the respiratory tract in both physiological and pathological conditions. Recent studies have analyzed the bacterial composition in the respiratory tract of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), influenza and tuberculosis patients, and have identified novel targets that may potentially lead to secondary infections. Certain bacteria have also been found to regulate the lung immune system and have unexpected connections with respiratory diseases. Further studies in these areas are necessary to dissect the exact relationship between the dynamics of the microbiota and the health of the respiratory system.Journal of Thoracic Disease 08/2013; 5(Suppl 2):S127-31. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.07.41 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Microbiota have recently been shown to be associated with many disease conditions. However, the microbiota associated with tuberculosis (TB) infection, recurrence and treatment outcome have not been systematically characterized. Here, we used high throughput 16S RNA sequencing to analyze the sputum microbiota associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and also to identify the microorganisms associated with different outcomes of TB treatment. We recruited 25 new TB patients, 30 recurrent TB patients and 20 TB patients with treatment failure, as well as 20 healthy controls. Streptococcus, Gramulicatella and Pseudomonas were more abundant in TB patients while Prevotella, Leptotrichia, Treponema, Catonella and Coprococcus were less abundant in TB patients than in the healthy controls. We found reduced frequency and abundance of some genera such as Bulleidia and Atopobium in recurrent TB patients compared with those in new TB patients. In addition, the ratio of Pseudomonas / Mycobacterium in recurrent TB was higher than that in new TB while the ratio of Treponema / Mycobacterium in recurrent TB was lower than that in new TB, indicating that disruption of these bacteria may be a risk factor of TB recurrence. Furthermore, Pseudomonas was more abundant and more frequently present in treatment failure patients than in cured new patients, and the ratio of Pseudomonas / Mycobacterium in treatment failure was higher than that in new TB. Our data suggest that the presence of certain bacteria and the disorder of lung microbiota may be associated with not only onset of TB but also its recurrence and treatment failure. These findings indicate that lung microbiota may play a role in pathogenesis and treatment outcome of TB and may need to be taken into consideration for improved treatment and control of TB in the future.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83445. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083445 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Author Summary Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection related illness progresses despite the control of the virus itself by medications that stop the replication of the virus. This happens because the immune system gets activated. While the causes for such activation of the immune system are not exactly known, immune activation in HIV infection may be occurring as a result of bacteria or their products in the digestive tract. This study looks at the types of bacteria that reside in the lower intestinal tract in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, using state of the art sequencing technology, that can simultaneously look at thousands of bacteria. We have found that the bacteria at the end of the small bowel (an area also called the terminal ileum), at the right and left sides of the large intestine and in the stool is different in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV patients harbor more bacteria that have been linked to other human diseases and have been previously described as harmful. This finding is new and could open up a new frontier of study that could now pave the way to gain a deeper understanding of how the HIV causes illness.PLoS Pathogens 02/2014; 10(2):e1003829. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003829 · 8.06 Impact Factor