Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for >20 minutes has been considered futile after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests. This concept has recently been questioned, although the effect of CPR duration on outcomes has not recently been described. Our objective was to determine the relationship between CPR duration and outcomes after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests.
Methods and results:
We examined the effect of CPR duration for pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation prospective, multicenter registry of in-hospital cardiac arrests. We included 3419 children from 328 U.S. and Canadian Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation sites with an in-hospital cardiac arrest between January 2000 and December 2009. Patients were stratified into 5 patient illness categories: surgical cardiac, medical cardiac, general medical, general surgical, and trauma. Survival to discharge was 27.9%, but only 19.0% of all cardiac arrest patients had favorable neurological outcomes. Between 1 and 15 minutes of CPR, survival decreased linearly by 2.1% per minute, and rates of favorable neurological outcome decreased by 1.2% per minute. Adjusted probability of survival was 41% for CPR duration of 1 to 15 minutes and 12% for >35 minutes. Among survivors, favorable neurological outcome occurred in 70% undergoing <15 minutes of CPR and 60% undergoing CPR >35 minutes. Compared with general medical patients, surgical cardiac patients had the highest adjusted odds ratios for survival and favorable neurological outcomes, 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.4) and 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-3.9), respectively.
CPR duration was independently associated with survival to hospital discharge and neurological outcome. Among survivors, neurological outcome was favorable for the majority of patients. Performing CPR for >20 minutes is not futile in some patient illness categories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: Performance of high quality CPR is associated with improved resuscitation outcomes. This study investigates code leader ability to recall CPR error during post-event interviews when CPR recording/audiovisual feedback-enabled defibrillators are deployed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Physician code leaders were interviewed within 24h of 44 in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests to assess their ability to recall if CPR error occurred during the event. Actual CPR quality was assessed using quantitative recording/feedback-enabled defibrillators. CPR error was defined as an overall average event chest compression (CC) rate <95/min, depth <38mm, ventilation rate >10/min, or any interruptions in CPR >10s. We hypothesized that code leaders would recall error when it actually occurred ≥75% of the time when assisted by audiovisual alerts from a CPR recording feedback-enabled defibrillators (analysis by χ(2)). RESULTS: 810min from 44 cardiac arrest events yielded 40 complete data sets (actual and interview); ventilation data was available in 24. Actual CPR error was present in 3/40 events for rate, 4/40 for depth, 32/40 for interruptions >10s, and 17/24 for ventilation frequency. In post-event interviews, code leaders recalled these errors in 0/3 (0%) for rate, 0/4 (0%) for depth, and 19/32 (59%) for interruptions >10s. Code leaders recalled these CPR quality errors less than 75% of the time for rate (p=0.06), for depth (p<0.01), and for CPR interruption (p=0.04). Quantification of errors not recalled: missed rate error median=94CC/min (IQR 93-95), missed depth error median=36mm (IQR 35.5-36.5), missed CPR interruption >10s median=18s (IQR 14.4-28.9). Code leaders did recall the presence of excessive ventilation in 16/17 (94%) of events (p=0.07). CONCLUSION: Despite assistance by CPR recording/feedback-enabled defibrillators, pediatric code leaders fail to recall important CPR quality errors for CC rate, depth, and interruptions during post-cardiac arrest interviews.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose of review:
Cardiac arrest registries are used to measure and improve the process and outcome of resuscitation care, and can give insight into risk factors, prognosis, and the effectiveness of interventions to mitigate its impact. This review provides an overview of current out-of-hospital (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) registries, with attention to key recent findings and future directions.
Major OHCA registries include the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Cardiac Arrest Epistry and Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival. Registry data from IHCA largely stem from the US and Canada with Get with the Guidelines-Resuscitation, and the UK with the National Cardiac Arrest Audit. Each registry has strengths and limitations. Important findings include trends in survival, racial disparities in care, and hospital and community-level variations in performance, as well as estimates of the effectiveness of individual interventions. Utstein definitions facilitate uniform reporting of the process and outcome of care, and are currently being updated. Standardization of registry data is an ongoing challenge.
OHCA and IHCA registries are invaluable in advancing our understanding of resuscitation care, as well as variations in international practice. Investigations that compare and contrast outcomes from established and evolving registries will help advance resuscitation science further.
Current opinion in critical care 04/2013; 19(3). DOI:10.1097/MCC.0b013e328360ad06 · 2.62 Impact Factor
Hana Psotova, Petr Ostadal, Mikulas Mlcek, Andreas Kruger, Marek Janotka, Dagmar Vondrakova, Tomas Svoboda, Matej Hrachovina, Ludek Taborsky, Vlasta Dudkova, Svitlana Strunina, Otomar Kittnar, Petr Neuzil
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