Hazards of Chemical Rockets and Propellants. Volume 2. Solid Propellants and Ingredients



This manual is intended solely as a source of information and as a set of basic guidelines for the processing, handling, storage and transportation of chemical rocket and gun propellants and propellant ingredients. Contents of this volume include: SOLID PROPELLANT PROCESS OPERATIONS; Safe Practices; Gun Propellant Process Operations; Rocket Propellant Manufacture and Processing Operations; Small Arms Propellant Process Operations; Other Operations Related to Propellant Manufacture; Storage and Surveillance; SOLID PROPELLANT INGREDIENTS PROPERTIES, AND HAZARDS; MATERIALS; FUELS; Metals; Binder Ingredients; Oxidizers; PLASTICIZERS; STABILIZERS; BURNING RATE MODIFIERS; SPECIAL PURPOSE CHEMICALS.

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    ABSTRACT: The third conference on the environmental chemistry of hydrazine fuels consisted of the following five general sessions: gas-phase kinetics and models; soil, surface, and matrix isolation studies; hydrazine disposal studies; detection and monitoring; and toxicology. Researchers in these areas of hydrazine fuels chemistry gave short lectures and afterwards entertained questions. The plenary lecture, entitled '100 Years of Hydrazine Chemistry,' was given by Dr Eckart W. Schmidt. The first session dealt with gas-phase kinetics and models and included results from studies of the atmospheric reactions of hydrazine fuels with atmospheric pollutants, decay studies in Teflon chambers, and the interaction of hydrazine fuels with metals and metal oxides. Results show that hydrazine in the vapor state does not react with oxygen at atmospheric conditions, but does not react with commonly occurring pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Hydrazine can be oxidized by certain metals and metal oxides, including aluminum and cupric oxide. Keywords: Hydrazine fuels, Gas phase kinetics, Models, Soil studies, Matrix isolation studies, Disposal studies, Detection, Monitoring, Toxicology.
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal conductivity of liquid hydrazine was measured by the steady-state hot-wire method at 293.2 K and 0.101 MPa. Eight pure organic liquids were used as reference liquids to calibrate the experimental apparatus. The thermal conductivity was determined to be lambda = 0.32 +/- 0.03 W.m(-1) K(-1). The present measurement is in agreement with one recent measurement. The present measurement disagrees with the most recent measurement as well as several previous measurements and estimation methods. The thermal conductivity was determined to change very little over the pressure range of 0.101 to 2.068 Mpa. The present observed pressure dependence is in agreement with one previous pressure dependence measurement. The speed of sound in liquid hydrazine was measured to be 2092 +/- 12 m.s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements. There are large inaccuracies obtained when estimating the thermal conductivity of hydrazine by using standard estimation methods that use speed-of-sound data.
    Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer 10/2009; 23(4):828-835. DOI:10.2514/1.38775 · 0.83 Impact Factor