Gestational diabetes and childhood obesity: what is the link?
ABSTRACT PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recently published studies examining the role of prepregnancy obesity in the relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus and childhood obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Seven epidemiologic studies published from January 2011 to February 2012 differentiate between preexisting diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus, and six of them examine the role of maternal obesity. In studies that account for maternal obesity as a covariate, the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and childhood obesity is attenuated significantly after adjustment for prepregnancy BMI. In the one study that does not adjust for maternal obesity, maternal glucose level during pregnancy is associated with greater offspring adiposity, independent of the child's diet and lifestyle. SUMMARY: This review shows a positive association between maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring overweight and obesity that is attenuated significantly after adjustment for prepregnancy BMI. The relationship between maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring overweight and obesity could reflect fetal programming, shared genes and/or shared environments, such as postnatal diet and physical activity. Maternal gestational hyperglycemia and subsequent fetal hyperinsulinemia may predispose offspring to increased adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Because maternal obesity is a more prevalent condition than gestational diabetes mellitus and strongly associated with offspring obesity, effective interventions addressing prepregnancy obesity need to be further explored as they may have a greater public health impact on childhood overweight and obesity than those targeting women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine the relationships between birth weight and body mass index, percent body fat, blood lipids, glycemia, insulin resistance, adipokines, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a cohort of obese adolescents. Design and Methods. Ninety-five subjects aged 10-16 years (mean age 13.5 years) with a body mass index >95th centile (mean [±SEM] 33.0 ± 0.6) were utilized from two prospective studies for obesity prevention prior to any interventions. The mean term birth weight was 3527 ± 64 g (range 1899-4990 g;). Results. Body mass index z-score correlated positively with birth weight (r (2) = 0.05, P = 0.03), but not percent body fat. Insulin resistance negatively correlated with birth weight (r (2) = 0.05, P < 0.001), as did fasting plasma insulin (r (2) = 0.05, P < 0.001); both being significantly greater for subjects of small versus large birth weight (Δ Homeostasis Model Assessment = 2.5 and Δ insulin = 10 pmol/L for birth weight <2.5 kg versus >4.5 kg). Adiponectin, but not leptin, blood pressure z-scores or peripheral arterial tomography values positively correlated with birth weight (r (2) = 0.07, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Excess body mass index in obese adolescents was positively related to birth weight. Birth weight was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors but represented a significant determinant of insulin resistance.08/2013; 2013:490923. DOI:10.1155/2013/490923
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic impairments in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) induce an abnormal environment in peripheral blood and cause vascular structure alterations which affect the placental development and function. A GDM model was developed using C57BL/6J female mice fed with high fat food (HF) (40% energy from fat) and a control group with control food (CF) (14% energy from fat) for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 18.5 to evaluate the fetal and placental development. HF-fed dams exhibited significant increase in the maternal weight gain and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), impaired insulin secretion of glucose stimulus and glucose clearance of insulin stimulus before pregnancy; in addition, they also had the increase in the fetal and placental weight. HF-fed dams at GD 18.5 showed the high level of circulating maternal inflammation factors and were associated with increased oxidative stress and hypoxia in the labyrinth, abnormal vascular development with a high level of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and VEGF-A expression, but without a parallel increase in CD31 level; were induced an exaggerated inflammatory response in placental vascular endothelial cell. Our findings show that GDM induces more maternal weight gain and fetus weight, with abnormal maternal circulating metabolic and inflammation factors, and forms a placental hypoxia environment and impacts the placental vascular development. Our findings indicate that gestational diabetes induce excessive chronic hypoxia stress and inflammatory response in placentas which may contribute mechanisms to the high risks of perinatal complications of obesity and GDM mothers.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2013; 6(4):650-9. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The different screening and diagnostic methods for gestational diabetes currently in clinical use has led the NIH's Office of Disease Prevention to organize a consensus conference to better understand the potential ramifications of changing the current screening and diagnostic criteria in the United States versus keeping current practices in place. Research has demonstrated that even mild forms of hyperglycemia potentially pose significant adverse health consequences for pregnant women and their children. Thus, it is anticipated that lowering the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes will significantly reduce morbidity and healthcare costs in the long term. However, such a change would dramatically increase the number of women identified as having this disease and place a significantly greater burden on an already overburdened primary health care system. Although several cost-benefit analyses suggest that such a change will improve health outcomes for mothers and babies, at least one study found that these anticipated public health benefits will not occur unless a higher level of care is devoted to these newly diagnosed patients. There also is a distinct possibility that changing the diagnostic criteria for GDM will increase cesarean delivery rates, which might offset many of the public health gains engendered by diagnosing more women with this condition. The scientific dilemma to change or not to change, thus, requires a rigorous analysis of the scientific, economic, practice, and legal pros and cons to achieve a satisfactory answer.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 10/2012; 208(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2012.10.887 · 3.97 Impact Factor