Most intraspinal neoplasms of epithelial origin are metastases from primary carcinomas. Benign epithelial tumors are rarely found at this site. We here present the case of a 44-year-old woman with a lesion in the cauda equina that fulfilled the radiologic criteria of schwannoma and caused clinical symptoms for 3 years. The excised tumor was composed of nests of large polygonal cells with eosinophilic partial granular cytoplasm. Significant atypia, necrosis, and mitosis were absent from this lesion. The tumor showed diffuse positivity for melan-A, synaptophysin, and alpha-inhibin. Steroidogenic factor 1 and cytokeratins 8 and 18 were focally seen in the absence of S-100 and chromogranin. This immunoprofile indicated adrenocortical origin. Ultrastructural examination showed abundant mitochondria, suggesting an oncocytic tumor. The diagnosis of an oncocytic adrenal cortical adenoma was made. These extraadrenal tumors are thought to arise from heterotopic adrenocortical tissue in the spinal cavity. Oncocytic tumors are rare neoplasms and they comprise non-functioning variants of adrenal cortical adenomas. To date, only five such intraspinal tumors have been observed. Immunohistochemistry excluded oncocytic paraganglioma, oncocytic meningioma, renal cell carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and granular cell tumor. A view of the literature of these rare but probably underdiagnosed intraspinal tumors is given.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic adrenal cortical neoplasms are extremely rare; few involve the central nervous system (CNS). We report a 17-month-old girl with spinal adrenal cortical neoplasms. She was unable to crawl or stand and was irritable at night. Her appearance was asymmetrical; the right side of her face and her lower right leg were enlarged. In addition, she manifested hyperplasia of the thymus, fibrous hyperplasia of the bladder, and hamartoma in the liver. However, all abnormalities were asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed well-circumscribed masses within the dura mater at the T12-L1 and L3-L4 level. Histology disclosed that the lesions were composed of sheets and nests of round and polygonal cells with mostly round regular nuclei; eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm was abundant. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for inhibin-alpha, positive for synaptophysin and vimentin, and negative for GFAP, EMA, S-100, NSA, and chromogranin A. In addition, the nuclei stained positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), which is involved in adrenal steroidogenesis. This case confirms the occurrence of adrenocortical adenoma in the CNS. We suggest that this tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncocytomas are defined as tumors containing in excess of 50% large mitochondrion-rich cells, irrespective of histogenesis and dignity. Along the central neuraxis, oncocytomas are distinctly uncommon but relevant to the differential diagnosis of neoplasia marked by prominent cytoplasmic granularity. We describe an anaplastic ependymoma (WHO grade III) with a prevailing oncocytic component that was surgically resected from the right fronto-insular region of a 43-year-old female. Preoperative imaging showed a fairly circumscribed, partly cystic, contrast-enhancing mass of 2 cm × 2 cm × 1.7 cm. Histology revealed a biphasic neoplasm wherein conventional ependymal features coexisted with plump epithelioid cells replete with brightly eosinophilic granules. Whereas both components displayed an overtly ependymal immunophenotype, including positivity for S100 protein and GFAP, as well as "dot-like" staining for EMA, the oncocytic population also tended to intensely react with the antimitochondrial antibody 113-1. Conversely, failure to bind CD68 indicated absence of significant lysosomal storage. Negative reactions for both pan-cytokeratin (MNF 116) and low molecular weight cytokeratin (CAM 5.2), as well as synaptophysin and thyroglobulin, further assisted in ruling out metastatic carcinoma. In addition to confirming the presence of "zipper-like" intercellular junctions and microvillus-bearing cytoplasmic microlumina, electron microscopy allowed for the pervasive accumulation of mitochondria in tumor cells to be directly visualized. A previously not documented variant, oncocytic ependymoma, is felt to add a reasonably relevant novel item to the differential diagnosis of granule-bearing central nervous system neoplasia, in particular oncocytic meningioma, granular cell astrocytoma, as well as metastatic deposits by oncocytic malignancies from extracranial sites.
Pathology - Research and Practice 01/2011; 207(1):49-54. DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2010.05.006 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncocytic lesions are characterized pathologically by an abundance of oncocytes, that is by enlarged, eosinophilic, and finely granular cells enriched in mitochondria. They can arise in numerous organs and tissues, often in endocrine glands, and have been associated with hyperplasia, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. The causes and mechanisms that transform a normal cell into an oncocyte remain to be elucidated. Aim of this article is to review the most common oncocytic lesions, highlighting their key pathological features and clinical significance.
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