Major lower extremity amputation in elderly patients with peripheral arterial disease: incidence and survival rates.
ABSTRACT The methods of treating peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have changed and become more prophylactic. This study describes and analyzes 1) the incidence rates of major lower extremity amputation (LEA) due to PAD, 2) occurrence of re-amputation, and 3) the survival of amputees and factors predicting survival.
The series consisted of 210 patients (mean age 76.6, SD 10.7 yrs, 45.2% men) who underwent their first, i.e. index, major leg amputation because of PAD, in 1998-2002, in the city of Turku, Finland, population 175,000.
The age-and gender-standardized incidence rate of combined above-knee and below-knee amputations was 24.1/100,000 person-years during 1998-2002. Thirty-four per cent of amputees underwent repetitive amputation. One-month mortality was 21% (n=45), one-year mortality 52% (n=109) and overall mortality 80% (n=168). Cardiovascular diseases predicted equally well 31-day, one-year, and overall mortality in age- and gender- adjusted analysis. Multiple co-morbidities (p=0.023) and unilateral above-knee amputations (p=0.047) were significant predictors for overall mortality in age- and gender-adjusted analysis. Cardiovascular diseases remained a significant predictor for 31-day and overall mortality in multivariate analysis (p=0.008 and p=0.015, respectively). Amputated patients' previous vascular procedures did not have any effect on mortality in the Cox model. Most revascularizations were performed less than six months before the index/first major LEA.
Major LEAs seem to have been done late, and mainly for pain relief in the end-stage of patients with peripheral arterial disease.
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ABSTRACT: Major lower extremity amputation (LEA) leads to great loss in mobility, exposing old people to the risk of losing their independent living status. This study applies predictors for institutionalization and considers prosthesis use by major lower leg amputees with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). 119 PAD patients admitted from home (mean age 73.6, SD 11.5 years, 48% men) underwent their first major LEA, 1998- 2002, and survived at least one month after the operation. Logistic regression analysis was run to clarify institutionalization predictors. Prosthesis use and ambulatory capacity were recorded during the follow-up. Older age, living alone, and unilateral above-knee amputation (AKA) or bilateral amputation predicted institutionalization. Of prosthesis users, 69% (27/39) were younger than 75 and 44% (17/39) were able to walk both in- and outdoors. Reasons for not receiving a prosthesis after amputation were: 1) short expected survival; 2) old age, combined with unilateral AKA or bilateral amputation; 3) unilateral AKA or bilateral amputation and a comorbid condition such as hemiparesis, paraplegia, uremia, dementia, or alcohol misuse. After one year, 72% (36/50) of amputees who were able to return home and 9% (3/32) of amputees in institutional care used a prosthesis. The majority of amputated patients cannot return home after their first LEA. Comorbid conditions particularly influencing functional capacity also hinder ambulation with a prosthesis.Aging clinical and experimental research 05/2009; 21(2):129-35. DOI:10.1007/BF03325220 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) amputees. Fifty-nine PAD patients (mean age 75.2, SD 10.7, range 39-96, 47% men) who had undergone their first major lower leg amputation (LEA) on average 2.7 years earlier (in 1998-2002) were interviewed, and 118 age- and gender-matched controls completed a postal questionnaire. Outcomes were assessed with 15D Health-Related QoL instrument, Rand-36 Physical Functioning- and General Health subscales, Geriatric Depression Scale, 6-item Brief Social Support Questionnaire, and Self-reported Life Satisfaction score. The amputees had more diseases than their controls. HRQoL was lower among amputees than among controls. Half the amputees lived in institutional care, 25% had a Mini-Mental Examination score <18, and 22% had unilateral belowknee amputations only. The amputees had a similar self-assessed sense of their general state of health, life satisfaction and perceived social support as controls. Amputees who were institutionalized and those who did not use prostheses had more symptoms of depression than those who lived at home or used prostheses. Home-dwelling amputees had a relatively good QoL, whereas institutionalization was associated with depressive symptoms. In rehabilitation programs, not only physical disability assessment but also QoL should be considered.Aging clinical and experimental research 12/2009; 22(5-6):395-405. DOI:10.3275/6712 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lower extremity amputation is often performed in patients with end-stage vascular disease and is considered a high-risk procedure. Uncertainty exists about the rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in these patients. To establish the incidence of death and venous thromboembolism after lower extremity amputation. A prospective cohort study was performed to establish the incidences of death and VTE after lower extremity amputation, as detected by bilateral complete compression ultrasonography and ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy performed preoperatively and around day 14 postoperatively. Standard low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis was given during the study period. A secondary outcome was the incidences of mortality and symptomatic venous thromboembolic complications during 8 weeks of postoperative follow-up. Forty-nine patients (53 amputations) were ultimately included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Five patients died within the 2-week period and an additional seven patients died during the 8 weeks clinical follow-up period. The total mortality rate therefore was 12 of 53 amputations [22.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12.3-36.2%]. Six patients developed pulmonary embolisms (of which two were fatal) and one patient developed an asymptomatic contralateral distal deep venous thrombosis, resulting in a total VTE rate of 7 out of 53 amputations (13.2%; 95% CI, 5.47-25.3%). Lower extremity amputation is accompanied by a high mortality rate from sepsis, and respiratory and vascular causes. This study shows that VTE substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality after lower extremity amputation despite adequate pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in this vulnerable population of patients.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/2010; 8(12):2680-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.04067.x · 5.55 Impact Factor