Compartmental modeling of 11C-HOMADAM binding to the serotonin transporter in the healthy human brain.
ABSTRACT The novel PET radioligand (11)C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-hydroxymethylphenylthio)benzylamine ((11)C-HOMADAM) binds with high affinity and selectively to the serotonin transporter (SERT). The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable kinetic model to describe the uptake of (11)C-HOMADAM in the healthy human brain.
Eight volunteers participated in the study; 5 of them were fitted with arterial catheters for blood sampling and all were scanned on a high-resolution research tomograph after the injection of (11)C-HOMADAM. Regional distribution volumes and binding potentials were calculated with 2- and 4-parameter arterial-input compartment models, a 3-parameter reference tissue compartment model, and the Logan graphic approach.
The 2-parameter arterial-input compartment model was statistically superior to the 4-parameter model and described all brain regions. Calculated binding potentials agreed well between the arterial-input model and the reference tissue model when the cerebellum was used as the reference tissue. The Logan graphic approach was not able to estimate the higher concentration of SERT in the dorsal raphe than in the midbrain.
(11)C-HOMADAM is a highly promising radioligand with high ratios of specific binding to nonspecific binding in known SERT-rich structures, such as the raphe nuclei. The 3-parameter reference tissue model approach permits a simplified quantitatively accurate method for estimating SERT binding potentials.
- SourceAvailable from: jnm.snmjournals.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Because of its computational simplicity, the graphic method introduced by Logan et al. is frequently used to analyze time-activity curves of reversible radiotracers measured in brain regions with PET. The graphic method uses a nonlinear transformation of data to variables that have an asymptotically linear relationship. Compared with compartmental analysis of untransformed data, the graphic method enables derivation of regional distribution volumes that are free from assumptions about the underlying compartmental configuration. In this article, we describe statistical bias associated with this nonlinear transformation method. Theoretic analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and statistical analysis of PET data were used to test the graphic method for bias. Mean zero noise is associated with underestimation of distribution volumes when data are analyzed with graphic analysis, whereas this effect does not occur when the same data are analyzed by nonlinear regression and compartmental analysis. Moreover, this effect depends on the magnitude of the distribution volume, so that the bias is more pronounced in regions with high receptor density than regions with low receptor density or no receptors (region of reference). These results indicate that conventional kinetic analysis of untransformed data is less sensitive to mean zero noise than is graphic analysis of nonlinearly transformed data.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2001; 41(12):2083-8. · 5.77 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The recent introduction of a number of new radiotracers suitable for imaging the serotonin transporters (SERT) has radically changed the field of SERT imaging. Whereas, until recently, only one selective SERT radiotracer was available ([11C]McN 5652) for SERT imaging with positron emission tomography (PET), several new C-11-labeled radiotracers of the -dimethyl-2-(arylthio)benzylamine class have been described as appropriate imaging agents for the SERT. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative evaluation of four of the most promising agents in this class ([11C]ADAM, [11C]DASB, [11C]DAPA, and [11C]AFM) with the reference tracer [11C]McN 5652 under standardized experimental conditions. This evaluation included in vitro measurements of affinity and lipophilicity, and in vivo PET imaging experiments in baboons. In vitro, DASB displayed significantly lower affinity for SERT than the other four tracers. In the blood, [11C]DASB and [11C]AFM display faster clearance and higher free fractions. Brain uptake was analyzed with kinetic modeling using a one-tissue compartment model and the metabolite-corrected arterial input function. The kinetic uptake of [11C]DASB was significantly faster compared with the other compounds, and the scan duration required to derive time-independent estimates of regional distribution volumes was shorter. [11C]DAPA exhibited the slowest brain kinetic. Regional-specific-to-nonspecific equilibrium partition coefficient (V3") was the highest for [11C]AFM, followed by [11C]DASB and [11C]DAPA, which in turn provided higher V3" values than [11C]ADAM and [11C]McN 5652. From these experiments, two ligands emerged as superior radiotracers that provide a significant improvement over [11C]McN 5652 for PET imaging of SERT: [11C]DASB, because it enables the measurement of SERT availability in a shorter scanning time, and [11C]AFM, because its higher signal-to-noise ratios provide a more reliable measurement of SERT availability in brain regions with relatively low density of SERT, such as in the limbic system.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 12/2002; 22(11):1377-98. · 5.40 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alterations of serotonin transporters (SERT) are implicated in a large number of psychiatric conditions. (11)C-(+)-6beta-(4-Methylthiophenyl)-1,2,3,5,6alpha,10beta-hexahydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline ((11)C-McN 5652) was the first PET radiotracer successfully developed as a SERT imaging agent. Recently, (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ((11)C-DASB) was introduced as an alternative to (11)C-McN 5652. Comparative evaluation of (11)C-DASB and (11)C-McN 5652 in baboons indicates that (11)C-DASB is associated with (a) lower nonspecific binding in the brain, (b) higher plasma free fraction, and (c) faster plasma clearance and brain uptake kinetics, enabling measurement of SERT parameters in a shorter scanning time. The purpose of this study was to compare these 2 agents in healthy humans. Six healthy volunteers underwent 2 PET scans on the same day, one with (11)C-DASB and one with (11)C-McN 5652, in counterbalanced order. Regional distribution volumes (V(T)) were derived for 16 brain regions by kinetic analysis using the arterial input function. Both (11)C-DASB and (11)C-McN 5652 displayed similar patterns of accumulation: highest levels in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum; intermediate in the limbic regions; low in the neocortex; and lowest in the cerebellum. (11)C-DASB cerebellar V(T) (10.1 +/- 2.0 mL g(-1)) was lower than that of (11)C-McN 5652 (20.8 +/- 3.6 mL g(-1)), indicating lower nonspecific binding. As a result, regional specific-to-nonspecific equilibrium partition coefficients (V(3)") of (11)C-DASB were higher compared with those of (11)C-McN 5652 (for example, midbrain V(3)" of (11)C-DASB and (11)C-McN 5652 were 2.04 +/- 0.44 and 1.20 +/- 0.34, respectively). The plasma free fraction was 8.9% +/- 1.6% for (11)C-DASB and was not measurable for (11)C-McN 5652. In contrast to the situation observed in baboons, plasma clearances of both compounds were similar in humans, and the minimal scanning times required to derive time-invariant distribution volumes in all regions were comparable for both tracers (95 min). With the exception of the scanning time, predictions from baboon studies were confirmed in humans. The higher specific-to-nonspecific ratios of (11)C-DASB are a critical advantage. This property will be especially important for the measurement of SERT in regions with moderate density, such as the limbic regions, where alterations of serotonin transmission might be associated with anxiety and depression.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2004; 45(4):682-94. · 5.77 Impact Factor