New approaches to radiotherapy as definitive treatment for inoperable lung cancer.
ABSTRACT The standard curative approach for the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is definitive radiotherapy. Advanced treatment techniques have been developed that maximize radiation dose delivery to the tumor while minimizing the dose to critical surrounding structures. These radiation therapy techniques include three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, and particle beam radiotherapy. Biological imaging with (18)F-FDG-PET and other novel tracers in development have shown the potential to improve target delineation and patient selection for curative treatment. Tumor motion control with respiratory gating techniques and image-guided radiation therapy are recent developments that provide the radiation oncologist with accurate tumor localization on the treatment machine. This review article summarizes the literature on these topics and other state-of-the-art radiation therapy techniques in the management of inoperable NSCLC.
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ABSTRACT: To develop evidence-based guidelines on best available treatment options for patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A review was conducted of published English-language (abstract or full text) phase II or phase III trials and guidelines from other organizations that address management of the various categories of stage IIIB disease. The literature search was provided by the Duke University Center for Clinical Health Policy Research and supplemented by any additional studies known by the authors. Surgery may be indicated for carefully selected patients with T4N0-1M0. Patients with N3 nodal involvement are not considered to be surgical candidates. For individuals with unresectable disease, good performance score, and minimal weight loss, treatment with combined chemoradiotherapy results in better survival than radiotherapy (RT) alone. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy seems to be associated with improved survival compared with sequential chemoradiotherapy. Multiple daily fractions of RT when combined with chemotherapy have not been shown to result in improved survival compared with standard once-daily RT combined with chemotherapy. The optimal chemotherapy agents and the number of cycles of treatment to combine with RT are uncertain. Prospective trials are needed to answer important questions, such as the role of induction therapy in patients with potentially resectable stage IIIB disease. Future trials are needed to answer the questions of optimal chemotherapy agents and radiation fractionation schedule. The role of targeted novel agents in combination with chemoradiotherapy is just starting to be investigated.Chest 10/2007; 132(3 Suppl):266S-276S. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The planning target volume in radiotherapy treatment planning takes into account both movements of the clinical target volume (CTV) and set-up deviations. A group of patients who received radiotherapy for lung cancer were studied. In order to measure the CTV movements due to respiration and other internal organ motions, fluoroscopy was performed for 20 patients. To study the accuracy and reproducibility of patient and beam set-up, 553 electronic portal images from 20 patients were evaluated. Discrepancies between planned and actual field positions were measured and the systematic and random errors were identified. The combined effect of these geometrical variations was evaluated. The average CTV movement with quiet respiration was about 2.4 mm in the medio-lateral and dorso-ventral directions. Movement in the cranio-caudal direction was on average 3.9 mm with a range of 0-12 mm. The systematic set-up errors were on average 2.0 mm in the transversal plane and 3.0 mm in the cranio-caudal direction. The random errors can be described by their standard deviations of 3.2 and 2.6 mm. In this study, the combined effect of the two parameters (CTV movement and set-up deviations) varied between 7.5 and 10.3 mm in different anatomical directions. In our daily clinical routine, we use a margin of 11 mm in the transversal plane and 15 mm cranially and caudally, also taking into account other unquantified variations and uncertainties.Radiotherapy and Oncology 08/1998; 48(1):71-7. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the influence of total dose and tumor volume on local control and survival in primary radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical course and CT-derived pre- and post-therapeutic tumor volume data of 135 patients with NSCLC undergoing primary radiotherapy at our department between 1989 and 1996. Among these, a total of 192 spatially separated tumor volumes (135 primary tumors, 1 additional intrapulmonary tumor, and 56 involved lymph nodes) were available for analysis. In all patients, treatment was planned using CT-based three-dimensional treatment planning. The dose to each tumor volume was derived from the individual dose plans. Mean total dose was 59.9 Gy (range: 30-80 Gy). All but 3 patients were followed until death. For local control analysis, each tumor was analyzed separately, and its remission status was determined in serial follow-up CT scans. A total of 784 CT scans were analyzed. Actuarial local control analysis was performed for the 192 separated tumor volumes, and survival analysis was performed for the 135 patients. Tumor control probability was calculated using a Poisson statistical model. Overall 1- and 2-year local control rate was 50% and 37%, respectively. The 2-year local control rate for tumors <50 ccm, 50-200 ccm, and >200 ccm was 51%, 22%, and 10%, respectively (p = 0.02). The 2-year local control rate for dose levels < or = 60 Gy and >60 Gy was 28% and 43% (p < 0.001). For the subgroup of 147 tumors smaller than 100 ccm, the local control rate increased up to 70% (1 year) and 51% (2 years) with doses of more than 60 Gy. For tumors larger than 100 ccm, no dose effect was seen. Only 2 of 45 tumors >100 ccm were controlled more than 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed tumor volume, total dose, histopathologic type, and grading as significant and independent prognostic factors for local control. The number of delay days by split course (if used) and application of chemotherapy was not found to influence local control. Overall 1- and 2-year survival rate was 42% and 13%. Total radiation dose, chemotherapy, and T and N stage---but not tumor volume---were found to be independent and significant prognostic factors for survival in multivariate analysis. Tumor volume is an important predictor of local control in NSCLC. We found a clear dose effect for local control and survival in NSCLC. Long-term local control for a significant proportion of patients seems possible for small tumors only (<100 ccm, i.e., maximum diameter 6 cm) with doses of 70 Gy and more. Tumors of > or = 100 ccm are unlikely to be controlled long term by conventional doses up to 70 Gy. These results support dose escalation in patients with NSCLC.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 03/2002; 52(2):382-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor