Fijneman, R.J.A. et al. Expression of Pla2g2a prevents carcinogenesis in Muc2-deficient mice. Cancer Sci. 99, 2113-2119

Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Cancer Science (Impact Factor: 3.52). 12/2008; 99(11):2113-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2008.00924.x
Source: PubMed


Goblet cell depletion and down-regulation of MUC2 expression are observed in a significant percentage of human non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas. Direct evidence for the role of MUC2 in gastrointestinal tumor formation was demonstrated by a knockout of Muc2 in mice that resulted in the development of adenocarcinomas in the small and large intestine. The secretory phospholipase Pla2g2a is a protein that confers resistance to Apc(Min/+)-induced intestinal tumorigenesis. Like Muc2, in the large intestine Pla2g2a is exclusively expressed by the goblet cells and Pla2g2a's tumor resistance is also strongest in the large intestine. Possible genetic interactions between Muc2 and Pla2g2a were examined by creating C57BL/6-Muc2(-/-)Pla2g2a transgenic mice. Expression of a Pla2g2a transgene reduced tumorigenesis in the large intestine by 90% in male Muc2(-/-) mice and by nearly 100% in female Muc2(-/-) mice. Expression of Pla2g2a also inhibited tumor progression. Microarray gene expression studies revealed Pla2g2a target genes that modulate intestinal energy metabolism, differentiation, inflammation, immune responses and proliferation. Overall, results of the present study demonstrate an Apc-independent role for Pla2g2a in tumor resistance and indicate that Pla2g2a plays an important role, along with Muc2, in protection of the intestinal mucosa.

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    • "This may explain the contradictory reports and difficulty in assigning a clear role for a particular sPLA 2 in various cancers. For example, the role of GIIA sPLA 2 in colon cancer is still controversial , and several groups have found opposing effects on tumour progression, suggesting that GIIA may suppress carcinogenesis at early stages of tumour development, while promoting it at later stages [23] [24]. Given that the biological roles of sPLA 2 s are diverse and depend on the enzyme studied, its expression level and the tissue involved, the differential epigenetic regulation, shown here for breast cancer cells, adds another layer of complexity to their role in cancer and human (patho)physiology in general. "
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    ABSTRACT: Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) have recently been associated with several cancers, but their role in breast cancer is unknown. Here we demonstrate that mRNA expression of group IIA, III and X sPLA2s differs both in vivo in tumour biopsies and in breast cancer cells in vitro. Their expression is differentially regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation and, significantly, all three genes are silenced in aggressive triple negative cells due to both mechanisms. The transcription start site promoter region and upstream CpG islands, exclusive to the group X sPLA2 gene, have variable roles in the regulation of sPLA2 expression. Our results suggest that the differential expression of hGIIA, hGIII and hGX sPLA2s in breast cancer cells is a consequence of various degrees of epigenetic silencing due to DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation.
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    ABSTRACT: The group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 gene, Pla2g2a, confers resistance to intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. However, it is unclear how Pla2g2a exerts its tumor-suppressive effects and whether its mode of action depends on Apc-germline mutations. We tested whether expression of a Pla2g2a transgene provides protection against carcinogen-induced colon tumors, and examined whether the normal colon microenvironment is modulated by Pla2g2a expression. Pla2g2a strongly inhibited colon tumorigenesis in mice following treatment with the DNA alkylating agent azoxymethane (AOM). Moreover, AOM-induced duodenal tumors were also attenuated by Pla2g2a expression. These tumors demonstrated upregulation of beta-catenin, indicative of involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway. Comparison of genome-wide microarray expression profiles of healthy (non-pathologic) colon tissues from Pla2g2a-transgenic to non-transgenic mice revealed 382 genes that were differentially expressed, comprising clusters of genes involved in inflammation and microbial defense, cell signaling and cell cycle, transactivation, apoptosis and mitochondrial function, DNA repair, and lipid and energy metabolism. Pathway analysis using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) indicated that Pla2g2a suppresses the expression of interferon-induced genes. Our results demonstrate that Pla2g2a attenuates colon tumorigenesis independent of Apc-germline mutations, and reveal Pla2g2a target genes and pathways in non-pathologic colon microenvironment that influence conditions for colorectal cancer development.
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelia are protected from adverse conditions by a mucous barrier. The secreted and transmembrane mucins that constitute the mucous barrier are largely unrecognized as effectors of carcinogenesis. However, both types of mucins are intimately involved in inflammation and cancer. Moreover, diverse human malignancies overexpress transmembrane mucins to exploit their role in signalling cell growth and survival. Mucins have thus been identified as markers of adverse prognosis and as attractive therapeutic targets. Notably, the findings that certain transmembrane mucins induce transformation and promote tumour progression have provided the experimental basis for demonstrating that inhibitors of their function are effective as anti-tumour agents in preclinical models.
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