Escherichia coli with autodisplayed Z-domain of protein A for signal amplification of SPR biosensor.
ABSTRACT Generally, an immunoaffinity SPR biosensor detects a target analyte in a sample through highly selective adsorption by using the antigen-antibody interaction. For improving the sensitivity, various kinds of particles have been added to the already bound analytes on the SPR biosensor (sandwich assay). In this work, signal amplification was demonstrated by the expression of the IgG-binding Z-domain of protein A on the outer membrane of Escherichia coli via "Autodisplay". The amount of Z-domain of protein A expressed on the outer membrane was calculated to be 280,000 molecules per cell. In addition, the IgG-binding ability of the expressed protein was characterized using FACS analysis. The signal amplification of the SPR biosensor was performed in the sandwich assay format using a model of horseradish peroxidase (HRP); the limit of detection was determined to be significantly improved from 1 microg/ml to 1 ng/ml. Finally, myoglobin analysis was demonstrated for the medical diagnosis of cardiac diseases. The detection limit was estimated to be improved from 10 ng/ml to <1 ng/ml. These results show that Z-domain-displaying E. coli can be successfully used for the signal amplification of immunoaffinity biosensors, thereby improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection.
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ABSTRACT: To display an enzyme on the surface of a living cell is an important step forward towards a broader use of biocatalysts. Enzymes immobilized on surfaces appeared to be more stable compared to free molecules. It is possible by standard techniques to let the bacterial cell (e.g. Escherichia coli) decorate its surface with the enzyme and produce it on high amounts with a minimum of costs and equipment. Moreover, these cells can be recovered and reused in several subsequent process cycles. Among other systems, autodisplay has some extra features that could overcome limitations in the industrial applications of enzymes. One major advantage of autodisplay is the motility of the anchoring domain. Enzyme subunits exposed at the cell surface having affinity to each other will spontaneously form dimers or multimers. Using autodisplay enzymes with prosthetic groups can be displayed, expanding the application of surface display to the industrial important P450 enzymes. Finally, up to 10⁵-10⁶ enzyme molecules can be displayed on a single cell. In the present review, we summarize recent achievements in the autodisplay of enzymes with particular attention to industrial needs and process development. Applications that will provide sustainable solutions towards a bio-based industry are discussed.Journal of Biotechnology 04/2012; 161(2):92-103. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported a highly sensitive immunoassay using Escherichia coli cells with autodisplayed Z-domains. In this work, E. coli cells with autodisplayed Z-domains were applied to the flow-cytometry-based simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The E. coli cells were doubly transfected to express a fluorescent protein (tdTomato) in the cytosol and the autodisplayed Z-domains on the outer membrane. By using E. coli cells with only the autodisplayed Z-domains, immunoassay of multiple analytes could be performed simultaneously on the same sample. Flow cytometry can be used to identify the immunoassay type by simultaneously detecting the fluorescence signal from the cytosol (tdTomato) and the fluorescence from the outer membrane, enabling the quantification of bound analytes after treatment with additional fluorescently labeled antibodies. To demonstrate the immunoassay of multiple analytes by using flow cytometry, human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and C-reactive protein (CRP), a broad spectrum inflammation marker, were used as model analytes.Enzyme and microbial technology. 08/2013; 53(3):181-8.
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ABSTRACT: A microarray-based immunoassay for the detection of autoantibodies against Ro protein was developed using Escherichia coli with autodisplayed Ro proteins (Ro(+)-E. coli). Patient serum usually contains various antibodies against the outer membrane components of E. coli as well as autoantibodies against the Ro protein. Therefore, the conventional immunoassay based on Ro(+)-E. coli requires both wild type E. coli (blank test) and Ro(+)-E. coli, and both strains of E. coli must be prepared in situ for each individual test serum. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using several types of animal sera as a replacement for individual human sera. An immunoassay without the blank test was developed using Ro(+)-E. coli by (1) blocking with rabbit serum, and (2) cleaving the Fc region from antibodies using papain. Modified E. coli with autodisplayed Ro protein was immobilized to a surface-modified microplate and the applicability of the immunoassay without the blank test was demonstrated using sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Using this approach, a microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay with immobilized Ro(+)-E. coli was able to detect anti-Ro autoantibodies in SLE patient sera with high specificity and selectivity and improved efficiency.Biosensors & bioelectronics 02/2014; 57C:213-218. · 5.43 Impact Factor